The present study examined the psychometric properties of Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003) scores in a multisite sample of 1,163 federally incarcerated Canadian indigenous and non-indigenous offenders from the Prairie Region of the Correctional Service of Canada. The research occurred against the backdrop of the Ewert v. Canada (2015) matter, in which the PCL-R was originally impugned in Federal Court for use with indigenous persons (later overturned in Canada v. Ewert, 2016). Indigenous men scored higher than non-indigenous men on most components of the PCL-R and had higher rates of recidivism, irrespective of follow-up. Discrimination analyses, however, supported the predictive efficacy of PCL-R total, factor, and facet scores for violent and general recidivism across both ancestral groups, with most group differences in area under the curve (AUC) magnitudes being small and nonsignificant. Calibration analyses demonstrated that higher PCL-R scores were associated with higher rates of general and violent recidivism for both ancestral groups, although higher recidivism rates were observed and estimated for indigenous men at specific PCL-R score thresholds. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the 4-factor model of psychopathy and hence, structural invariance, of PCL-R scores across ancestral groups. Structural equation modeling affirmed the predictive efficacy of the 4-factor model for recidivism. We discuss these findings in terms of clinical applications of the PCL-R and the psychopathy construct in general, with male offenders of indigenous ancestry.

Olver, M. E., Neumann, C. S., Sewall, L. A., Lewis, K., Hare, R. D., & Wong, S. C. P.
Psychological Assessment, 30(6), 2018