Prison employment and post‐traumatic stress disorder: Risk and protective factors [2018]

Objectives To examine the prevalence of Post‐Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in a sample of prison employees, investigate risk factors, and explore protective factors for PTSD. Methods We surveyed 355 Washington State Department of Corrections employees. The survey included the PTSD checklist for the DSM‐5 (PCL‐5), the Critical Incident History Questionnaire,

Examining Associations Between Psychopathic Traits and Executive Functions in Incarcerated Violent Offenders [2018]

Executive functions (EFs) are essential in almost all aspects of daily life and have been robustly related to antisocial behavior. However, the relationship between psychopathy and EFs has remained equivocal. Research investigating lower-level trait dimensions of psychopathy using standardized EF measures could be beneficial in addressing this issue. In this

An Emotion Regulation Treatment for Young People With Complex Substance Use and Mental Health Issues: A Case-Series Analysis [2018]

Highlights • Young people seeking treatment for AoD issues present with complex patterns of mental health and substance use comorbidity. • Treatments which target emotion regulation have the potential to address the complex needs of this cohort. • An emotion regulation intervention was piloted with a cohort of young adults in a residential

Crude estimates of prescription opioid-related misuse and use disorder populations towards informing intervention system need in Canada [2018]

Highlights • Estimates for populations with PO misuse and use disorder in Canada do not exist. • Populations were simulation-estimated based on survey and systematic review data. • Point estimates (2008) for PO misuse: 5.1% (1,408,223); PO disorder: 1.9% (525,100). • Point estimates (2015) for PO misuse: 3.1% (930,297); PO disorder: 1.2% (346,890). • PO-related

Experiences of living with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative data [2018]

Aim To identify and assess available evidence from qualitative studies exploring experiences of individuals living with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) or those living with a child with FASD, as well as experiences of interventions aimed at supporting individuals with FASD and their families. Method A systematic literature search was

Lifetime trauma and suicide attempts in older clients with severe mental illness [2018]

Research examining links between lifetime trauma and suicide attempts in older clients with severe mental illness (SMI) is scarce. We examined associations among six common forms of lifetime trauma and lifetime suicide attempts while controlling for other known correlates of suicide attempts including gender, psychiatric symptoms, thoughts of self-harm/suicide, and

Prevalence, Diagnosis, and Treatment Rates of Mood Disorders among Opioid Users under Criminal Justice Supervision [2018]

Background: Individuals involved in the criminal justice system have disproportionately high rates of psychiatric disorders when compared to the general U.S. population. If left untreated, the likelihood of subsequent arrest increases and risk for adverse health consequences is great, particularly among opioid users. Objectives: To explore the prevalence, characteristics, and

Perceived Self-Control is Related to Mental Distress in Patients Entering Substance Use Disorder Treatment [2018]

Background: Levels of mental distress are high in patients with substance use disorders (SUD) and investigation of correlates may broaden our understanding of this comorbidity. Objectives: We investigated self-reported symptoms of mental distress among individuals entering either outpatient opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) or other inpatient SUD treatment and related factors,

Long-stay patients with and without intellectual disability in forensic psychiatric settings: comparison of characteristics and needs [2018]

Background In recent years, concerns have been raised that too many patients stay for too long in forensic psychiatric services and that this is a particular problem in those with an intellectual disability. Aims To compare the characteristics, needs, and care pathways of long-stay patients with and without intellectual disability

Conceptualization, Assessment, and Treatment of Traumatic Stress in First Responders: A Review of Critical Issues [2018]

First responders are regularly confronted with exposure to traumatic events, including potentially life-threatening situations as well as the grave injuries and deaths of colleagues and civilians. Evidence indicates that the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is substantially higher among first responders than the general population. This article provides information

The Loss of a Sense of Control as a Major Contributor to Physician Burnout: A Neuropsychiatric Pathway to Prevention and Recovery [2018]

Burnout has become a major concern in health care. Multiple surveys have documented the alarming percentage of physicians experiencing the symptoms and signs of burnout. The consequences of burnout have been well described, and include increased medical errors, unprofessional conduct, reduced patient satisfaction, stress-related health problems, drug addiction, depression, suicidal

Personality and mental health treatment: Traits as predictors of presentation, usage, and outcome [2018]

Self-report scores on personality inventories predict important life outcomes, including health and longevity, marital outcomes, career success, and mental health problems, but the ways they predict mental health treatment have not been widely explored. Psychotherapy is sought for diverse problems, but about half of those who begin therapy drop out,

Using the Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offense version in sexual violence risk assessments: Updated risk categories and recidivism estimates from a multisite sample of treated sexual offenders [2018]

The present study sought to develop updated risk categories and recidivism estimates for the Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offense version (VRS-SO; Wong, Olver, Nicholaichuk, & Gordon, 2003–2017), a sexual offender risk assessment and treatment planning tool. The overarching purpose was to increase the clarity and accuracy of communicating risk assessment information

Age of Cannabis Use Onset and Adult Drug Abuse Symptoms: A Prospective Study of Common Risk Factors and Indirect Effects [2018]

The present study examined 1) whether the associations between cannabis use (CU) age of onset and drug abuse by 28 y remain when controlling for risk factors in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood; and 2) the developmental pathways from early risk factors to drug abuse problems. Participants from a longitudinal

Cost Analysis of a High Support Housing Initiative for Persons with Severe Mental Illness and Long-Term Psychiatric Hospitalization [2018]

Objective: The objective of this article was to conduct a cost analysis comparing the costs of a supportive housing intervention to inpatient care for clients with severe mental illness who were designated alternative-level care while inpatient at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health in Toronto. The intervention, called the

Ethnic Differences in Mental Health Status and Service Utilization: A Population-Based Study in Ontario, Canada [2018]

Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of self-reported mental health factors, mental health service use, and unmet needs across the 4 largest ethnic groups in Ontario, Canada: white, South Asian, Chinese, and black groups. Methods: The study population was derived from the Canadian Community Health

Use of withdrawal management services among people who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada [2018]

Background For many individuals with substance use disorders, the entry point for addiction treatment can be through withdrawal management (e.g. detoxification) services. However, little is known about the factors that predict withdrawal management service use among people who use illicit drugs (PWUD). Using data derived from two prospective cohorts of