An Emotion Regulation Treatment for Young People With Complex Substance Use and Mental Health Issues: A Case-Series Analysis [2018]

Highlights • Young people seeking treatment for AoD issues present with complex patterns of mental health and substance use comorbidity. • Treatments which target emotion regulation have the potential to address the complex needs of this cohort. • An emotion regulation intervention was piloted with a cohort of young adults in a residential

Crude estimates of prescription opioid-related misuse and use disorder populations towards informing intervention system need in Canada [2018]

Highlights • Estimates for populations with PO misuse and use disorder in Canada do not exist. • Populations were simulation-estimated based on survey and systematic review data. • Point estimates (2008) for PO misuse: 5.1% (1,408,223); PO disorder: 1.9% (525,100). • Point estimates (2015) for PO misuse: 3.1% (930,297); PO disorder: 1.2% (346,890). • PO-related

Prevalence, Diagnosis, and Treatment Rates of Mood Disorders among Opioid Users under Criminal Justice Supervision [2018]

Background: Individuals involved in the criminal justice system have disproportionately high rates of psychiatric disorders when compared to the general U.S. population. If left untreated, the likelihood of subsequent arrest increases and risk for adverse health consequences is great, particularly among opioid users. Objectives: To explore the prevalence, characteristics, and

Perceived Self-Control is Related to Mental Distress in Patients Entering Substance Use Disorder Treatment [2018]

Background: Levels of mental distress are high in patients with substance use disorders (SUD) and investigation of correlates may broaden our understanding of this comorbidity. Objectives: We investigated self-reported symptoms of mental distress among individuals entering either outpatient opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) or other inpatient SUD treatment and related factors,

Age of Cannabis Use Onset and Adult Drug Abuse Symptoms: A Prospective Study of Common Risk Factors and Indirect Effects [2018]

The present study examined 1) whether the associations between cannabis use (CU) age of onset and drug abuse by 28 y remain when controlling for risk factors in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood; and 2) the developmental pathways from early risk factors to drug abuse problems. Participants from a longitudinal

Use of withdrawal management services among people who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada [2018]

Background For many individuals with substance use disorders, the entry point for addiction treatment can be through withdrawal management (e.g. detoxification) services. However, little is known about the factors that predict withdrawal management service use among people who use illicit drugs (PWUD). Using data derived from two prospective cohorts of

Pain as a risk factor for substance use: a qualitative study of people who use drugs in British Columbia, Canada [2018]

Background People who use drugs have a significantly higher prevalence of chronic non-cancer pain compared to the general population, yet little is known about how various policy, economic, physical, and social environments may serve as risk or protective factors in the context of concurrent pain and substance use. Therefore, this

Willingness to use an in‐hospital supervised inhalation room among people who smoke crack cocaine in Vancouver, Canada [2018]

Introduction and Aims People who use illicit drugs (PWUD) often engage in drug use during hospitalisation. Adverse outcomes may arise from efforts to conceal inpatient drug use, especially in hospital settings that rely on abstinence‐based policies. Harm reduction interventions, including supervised drug consumption services, have not been well studied in

Substance use disorders in patients with intellectual disability admitted to psychiatric hospitalisation [2018]

Background Few studies have looked at the prevalence of substance use disorders (SUD) in people with intellectual disability (ID). The results range between 1% and 6.4% and go up to 20% in people with ID and psychiatric disorders, probably underestimating real prevalence due to several limitations in these studies. ID

Integrating injectable opioid agonist treatment into a Drug Treatment Court program: A case study [2018]

Background: A substantial proportion of individuals involved with the North American criminal justice system are convicted for drug-related activities. Drug treatment court (DTC) programs were developed as an alternative to incarceration for drug-related offences and aim to prioritize addiction treatment and improve health and social outcomes; however, only a fraction

Ambulance-attended opioid overdoses: an examination into overdose locations and the role of a safe injection facility [2018]

Background: Although the United States and numerous other countries are amidst an opioid overdose crisis, access to safe injection facilities remains limited. Methods: We used prospective data from ambulance journals in Oslo, Norway to describe the patterns, severity, and outcomes of opioid overdoses, and compared these characteristics among various overdose

Intent to Refer: Exploring Bias Toward Specific Medication-Assisted Treatments by Community Corrections Employees [2018]

Background: As opioid use increases in the United States, especially in the correctional population, the most effective treatment approaches need to be utilized. Research has shown that medication-assisted treatment (MAT) provides better outcomes than traditional treatment approaches alone, but is underutilized among correctional-supervised populations. Objective: This article looks at how

Substance‐related and addictive disorders as mediators between borderline personality disorder and aggressive behavior [2018]

Background Impulsivity is considered a core clinical feature in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Evidence also indicates that impulsivity is part of the biological vulnerability for BPD. The purpose of the study was to verify if the presence of substance‐related and addictive disorders (SRADs) may increase impulsivity and aggression in BPD.

The Development of Ecstasy Use Among Juvenile Offenders and Risk Factors for Predicting Heterogeneity: A Group-Based Approach [2018]

This study seeks to examine heterogeneity in developmental patterns of ecstasy use during adolescence and early adulthood among juvenile offenders and identify risk factors predicting development. Group-based trajectory modeling was utilized to elucidate heterogeneity in developmental patterns of ecstasy use. Multinomial logistic regression was utilized to identify covariates that affected

Callous-Unemotional Traits Modulate Brain Drug Craving Response in High-Risk Young Offenders [2018]

Adults with psychopathy have a high propensity for substance abuse, generally starting from a young age. This investigation tested hypotheses about differences in the neural responses associated with drug craving among high-risk young offenders with histories of abuse of stimulants and other drugs as a function of psychopathic traits. Fifty-four

The Prevalence and Characteristics of Intellectual and Borderline Intellectual Disabilities in a Sample of Inpatients with Substance Use Disorders: Preliminary Clinical Results [2018]

Introduction: There is reason to believe that many individuals with substance use disorders (SUD), who are in contact with services, have an undiagnosed intellectual disability. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of intellectual and borderline intellectual disabilities (ID/BID) among inpatients with SUD and to further

The costs of crime associated with stimulant use in a Canadian setting – 2017

Highlights •Few studies have estimated the costs of crime associated with stimulant use. •Substantial costs of crime associated with stimulant use. •Results strengthen case for more research into treatments for stimulant use disorders. Abstract Background Costs attributable to criminal activity are a major component of the economic burden of substance

Understanding the factor structure of the public stigma of substance use disorder – 2018

Few empirical research studies have examined the public stigma of substance use disorder (SUD) compared to mental illness (MI). Expanding on the results of a qualitative study on the stigma of SUD, this study quantitatively examined items thought to represent the three constructs of public stigma: stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination.

Activism and scientific research: 20 years of community action by the Vancouver area network of drug users – 2018

Background Over the past several decades, there have been numerous peer-reviewed articles written about people who use drugs (PWUDs) from the Downtown Eastside neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada. While individual researchers have engaged and acknowledged this population as participants and community partners in their work, there has been comparatively little attention

Perceived importance of substance use prevention in juvenile justice: a multi-level analysis – 2018

Background Youth under juvenile justice (JJ) supervision are at high-risk of adverse outcomes from substance use, making prevention important. Few studies have examined prevention-related attitudes of JJ employees, yet such attitudes may be important for implementing prevention programs. Attitudes toward prevention may reflect individual characteristics and organizational contexts. Methods Mixed