Feasibility and Effectiveness of Continuing Methadone Maintenance Treatment During Incarceration Compared With Forced Withdrawal – 2018

Background: Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is underutilized in correctional settings, and those receiving MMT in the community often undergo withdrawal upon incarceration. Federal and state regulations present barriers to providing methadone in correctional facilities. For this investigation, a community provider administered methadone to inmates who had been receiving methadone prior

An Exploration of Emergency Physicians’ Attitudes Toward Patients With Substance Use Disorder – 2018

Objectives: Much is known about some healthcare professionals’ attitudes toward patients with substance use disorders, but few studies have specifically looked at emergency department (ED) physicians. Individuals with substance use disorders are more likely to be people who chronically, frequently use the ED, and thus ED physicians are in a

The Observed Longitudinal Relationship between Future Orientation and Substance Use Among a Cohort of Youth with Serious Criminal Offenses – 2018

Background: Future orientation (FO), an essential construct in youth development, encompassing goals, expectations for life, and ability to plan for the future. This study uses a multidimensional measure of future orientation to assess the relationship between change in future orientation and change in substance use over time. Methods: Data were

Housing versus treatment first for supportive housing participants with substance use disorders: A comparison of housing and public service use outcomes – 2018

Background: Homeless persons with substance use disorders (SUD) have high disease risk, poor access to healthcare, and are frequent users of Medicaid and other social services. Low-demand supportive housing with no prerequisites for treatment or sobriety has been shown to improve housing stability and decrease public service use for chronically

Associations between methadone maintenance treatment and crime: a 17-year longitudinal cohort study of Canadian provincial offenders

Aims To estimate and test the difference in rates of violent and non-violent crime during medicated and non-medicated methadone treatment episodes. Design, Setting and Participants The study involved linkage of population level administrative data (health and justice) for all individuals (n = 14 530) in British Columbia, Canada with a history

Relationship between high-risk patients receiving prescription opioids and high-volume opioid prescribers – 2017

Aims (1) To characterize the amount of prescription opioids prescribed for high-risk patients by low-volume prescribers; (2) to quantify how high- and low-volume prescribers differ systematically in their prescribing patterns. Design Cross-sectional study using 2015 longitudinal, all-payer QuintilesIMS pharmacy claims. We conducted an aggregated analysis for the first aim and

The associations between psychotic experiences and substance use and substance use disorders: findings from the World Health Organization World Mental Health surveys – 2018

Background and aims Prior research has found bidirectional associations between psychotic experiences (PEs) and selected substance use disorders. We aimed to extend this research by examining the bidirectional association between PEs and various types of substance use (SU) and substance use disorders (SUDs), and the influence of antecedent mental disorders

Changes in the dispensing of opioid medications in Canada following the introduction of a tamper-deterrent formulation of long-acting oxycodone: a time series analysis – 2017

Background: In February 2012, a reformulated tamper-deterrent form of long-acting oxycodone, OxyNeo, was introduced in Canada. We investigated the impact of the introduction of OxyNeo on patterns of opioid prescribing. Methods: We conducted population-based, cross-sectional analyses of opioid dispensing in Canada between 2008 and 2016. We estimated monthly community pharmacy

Availability of naloxone in Canadian pharmacies:a population-based survey – 2017

Background: Naloxone is life-saving when administered after opioid overdose. In March 2016, the Canadian government made the antidote available without prescription, but anecdotal reports suggest members of the public have difficulty in procuring it. We examined the availability of naloxone in community pharmacies across Canada. Methods: We identified community pharmacies

The associations of poor psychiatric well-being among incarcerated men with injecting drug use histories in Victoria, Australia – 2018

Background Dual substance dependence and psychiatric and psychological morbidities are overrepresented in prison populations and associated with reoffending. In the context of an increasing prison population in Australia, investigating the needs of vulnerable people in prison with a dual diagnosis can help inform in-prison screening and treatment and improve prison

Who stays in addiction treatment groups? Anxiety and avoidant attachment styles predict treatment retention and relapse – 2018

Attachment styles have been shown to be an important predictor of relationship quality and well-being. They have also been linked with ability to function well in groups. Insecure attachment styles are thought to be an underlying cause of addiction and represent a target for change in one-to-one therapy. How attachment

Alcohol, drugs, and violence: A meta-meta-analysis – 2018

Objective: The aim of this project was to provide a comprehensive overview and quantitative synthesis of the links between alcohol, drugs, and violence with established meta-meta-analysis methodology. Gender, psychotic illness (present vs. absent), role (perpetrator vs. victim), substance (alcohol, drugs, or both), operationalizations of violence (e.g., laboratory observed violence, community

Gaging the impact of multiple substance use on community corrections involvement – 2018

Highlights • Multiple substance users reported more arrests than single substance users. • Multiple substance users were more likely to report family disfunction. • Multiple substance users did not differ in offense categories from single substance users. Abstract Historically, research has demonstrated that multiple substance use, compared to single substance use, poses additional

Canadian guidelines urge buprenorphine-naloxone to treat opioid use disorders – 2018-03

Canadian clinical practice guidelines published in CMAJ for the management of opioid use disorders recommend clinicians use buprenorphine–naloxone as first-line opioid agonist treatment when possible, utilize a stepped and integrated care approach and reject withdrawal management alone. “Opioid use disorder is a public health emergency nationwide, and this guideline provides

Patterns of Non-injection Drug Use Associated with Injection Cessation among Street-Involved Youth in Vancouver, Canada – 2018

Although abstinence from drug use is often a key goal of youth substance use treatment, transitioning to less harmful routes and types of drug use is desirable from both a clinical and public health perspective. Despite this, little is known about the trajectories of youth who inject drugs including changes

Nonmedical prescription opioid use and illegal drug use: initiation trajectory and related risks among people who use illegal drugs in Vancouver, Canada – 2018

Objective We investigated the prevalence of and risk factors associated with initiating nonmedical prescription opioid use (NMPOU) before and after illegal drugs using data from two linked cohort studies of street youth and adults who use illegal drugs in Vancouver, Canada. All participants who attended a study visit between 2013

An Evaluation of e-CHECKUP TO GO in Canada: The Mediating Role of Changes in Social Norm Misperceptions – 2018

Background: Alcohol use and related problems are key concerns among colleges, and web-based interventions to mitigate these issues are increasingly popular across campuses. A variety of programs are commercially available and have demonstrated efficacy in reducing alcohol use and consequences; however, little is known about how these programs reduce alcohol

The Criminogenic Influence of Family on Substance Use During Reentry: A Life-Course Perspective on Between Individual Differences and Within Individual Changes – 2018

A large body of prior research has demonstrated a clear link between family support and desistance from substance use during reentry. Emerging research also suggests that family conflict may play an independent role in this process. Accordingly, this study moves towards an understanding of how baseline between-individual differences in both