Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Aggression, and Illicit Stimulant Use: Is This Self-Medication? [2017]

This study compares adults with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on measures of direct and displaced aggression and illicit drug use. Three hundred ninety-six adults were administered the Wender Utah Rating Scale, the Risk Behavior Assessment, the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ), and the Displaced Aggression Questionnaire (DAQ). Those with

Substance Use Among Homeless Individuals With Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder [2017]

Mental illness and substance use are overrepresented within urban homeless populations. This paper compared substance use patterns between homeless individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum (SS) and bipolar disorders (BD) using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. From a sample of 497 subjects drawn from Vancouver, Canada who participated in the At Home/Chez

Female Ex-Offender Perspectives on Drug Initiation, Relapse, and Desire to Remain Drug Free [2016]

Recently released homeless women residing in temporary residential drug treatment (RDT) programs are at a critical juncture in the process of recovery, transition, and reentry. The purpose of this study was to explore factors influencing initial use of drugs and relapse triggers among a sample of incarcerated women exiting jails

Stigma and substance use disorders: an international phenomenon [2017]

Purpose of review To collect and update published information on the stigma associated with substance abuse in nonclinical samples, which has not been recently reviewed. Recent findings Searching large databases, a total of only 17 articles were published since 1999, with the majority of studies conducted outside the United States.

Psychosocial interventions in stimulant use disorders: a focus on women [2017]

Purpose of review Stimulant use disorders are significant contributors to the global burden of disease, with a growing impact on women. Psychosocial interventions are the gold standard for treating this condition, but several barriers may prevent women from accessing appropriate treatment. Therefore, we systematically reviewed the most recent findings about

Methamphetamine use and dependence in vulnerable female populations [2017]

Purpose of review The study reviews recent publications on methamphetamine use and dependence women in term of their epidemic, physical health impact, psychosocial impacts, and also in the identified vulnerable issues. Recent findings Studies of vulnerable populations of women are wide ranging and include sex workers, sexual minorities, homeless, psychiatric

Housing Status, Psychiatric Symptoms, and Substance Abuse Outcomes Among Sober Living House Residents Over 18 Months [2017]

Studies show individuals entering sober living recovery houses (SLHs) make significant, sustained improvement on measures of substance abuse problems, employment, and arrests. The current study assessed changes in housing status among SLH residents over 18 months and the relative influences of housing status and psychiatric distress on substance abuse outcomes.

A Unique Model for Adolescent Addiction Treatment: A Description of the Alberta Adolescent Recovery Centre [2017]

Objectives: Substance use disorders among adolescents are a serious concern in both the United States and Canada. In recent years, strides have been made in our understanding of how to effectively treat these disorders. However, there remains a need to understand how successful treatment approaches for adolescents can be integrated

Persistency of Cannabis Use Predicts Violence following Acute Psychiatric Discharge [2017]

Background: Violence is a major concern and is prevalent across several mental disorders. The use of substances has been associated with an exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms as well as with violence. Compared to other substances such as alcohol and cocaine, existing literature on the cannabis–violence relationship has been more limited,

Acceptability of prison-based take-home naloxone programmes among a cohort of incarcerated men with a history of regular injecting drug use [2018]

Background Take-home naloxone (THN) programmes are an evidence-based opioid overdose prevention initiative. Elevated opioid overdose risk following prison release means release from custody provides an ideal opportunity for THN initiatives. However, whether Australian prisoners would utilise such programmes is unknown. We examined the acceptability of THN in a cohort of

Profile of Justice-Involved Marijuana and Other Substance Users: Demographics, Health and Health Care, Family, and Justice System Experiences [2017]

Substance users are more likely to have co-occurring health problems, and this pattern is intensified among those involved with the criminal justice system. Interview data for 1977 incarcerated men in 5 states from the Multi-site Family Study on Incarceration, Parenting, and Partnering that was conducted between December 2008 and August

Mind-Body Approaches to Prevention and Intervention for Alcohol and Other Drug Use/Abuse in Young Adults [2018]

Alcohol and other drug (AOD) misuse is highly prevalent among young adults and creates myriad long-term problematic social, economic, and health consequences. Current treatments aimed at preventing or alleviating AOD misuse have demonstrated fairly inconsistent and weak effectiveness and, thus, are far from a complete solution. In this review, we

Suicidal attempts among patients with substance use disorders who present with suicidal ideation [2018]

Highlights• Patients with addiction problems have a great risk of suicidal ideation and attempts. • There are differences in patients in the different stages of suicidal behaviour. • Among suicidal ideators, 39.6% had attempted suicide. • Patients who attempt suicide show a worse clinical profile. • Screening of suicidal risk in patients seeking treatment for

Do Callous–Unemotional Traits and Conduct Disorder Symptoms Predict the Onset and Development of Adolescent Substance Use? [2018]

Despite strong evidence of the relationship between conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and substance use, it is unclear how callous–unemotional (CU) traits predict substance use over and above CD symptoms, and their potential interaction. This study used data from 753 participants followed from grade 7 to 2-years post-high school. Latent growth

Correlates of Illicit Drug Use Among Indigenous Peoples in Canada: A Test of Social Support Theory [2018]

Relying on a national stratified random sample of Indigenous peoples aged 19 years old and above in Canada, this study investigates the correlates of illicit drug use among Indigenous peoples, paying special attention to the association between social support measures and illegal drug use. Results from multivariate logistical regression show

Comparing the contribution of prescribed opioids to opioid-related hospitalizations across Canada: A multi-jurisdictional cross-sectional study [2018]

Highlights• Non-prescribed opioids are playing a growing role in opioid overdoses across Canada. • There is geographic variation in contributions of prescribed opioids to overdose. • Young people are much less likely to have prescribed opioids contribute to overdose. • These findings can be used to tailor policy responses to the ongoing opioid crisis.

Evaluation of a fentanyl drug checking service for clients of a supervised injection facility, Vancouver, Canada [2018]

Background British Columbia, Canada, is experiencing a public health emergency related to opioid overdoses driven by consumption of street drugs contaminated with illicitly manufactured fentanyl. This cross-sectional study evaluates a drug checking intervention for the clients of a supervised injection facility (SIF) in Vancouver. Methods Insite is a facility offering

Describing the feasibility of using case management in a specialist forensic substance misuse intervention for UK veterans: a case study [2018]

Veterans with mental health problems are a high-risk group for substance misuse difficulties and are over-represented in forensic settings. Yet, there are few substance misuse services available for this population. Evidence suggests that case management can provide effective interventions for veterans with substance misuse problems. However, there is little research