The association of cannabis use on inpatient psychiatric hospital outcomes – 2017-06-14

Background: The associations between cannabis use and psychosis are well documented in numerous studies. There is a need to evaluate the impact of cannabis use on inpatient psychiatric utilization and outcomes. Objectives: To evaluate the impact of cannabis use on psychiatric hospital outcomes. Methods: This study was conducted between April

The relationships of classic psychedelic use with criminal behavior in the United States adult population – 2017-10-17

Criminal behavior exacts a large toll on society and is resistant to intervention. Some evidence suggests classic psychedelics may inhibit criminal behavior, but the extent of these effects has not been comprehensively explored. In this study, we tested the relationships of classic psychedelic use and psilocybin use per se with

Can scare tactics and fear-based messages help deter substance misuse: a systematic review of recent (2005–2017) research – 2018-01-15

Introduction: Historically, substance use prevention relied heavily on scare tactics and fear-based messages. However, these messages were discouraged from use due to research finding them ineffective or harmful. This review sought to determine if recent research continues to support this finding. Methods: We conducted a literature review of relevant peer-reviewed

Prevalence, Diagnosis, and Treatment Rates of Mood Disorders among Opioid Users under Criminal Justice Supervision – 2018-01-15

Background: Individuals involved in the criminal justice system have disproportionately high rates of psychiatric disorders when compared to the general U.S. population. If left untreated, the likelihood of subsequent arrest increases and risk for adverse health consequences is great, particularly among opioid users. Objectives: To explore the prevalence, characteristics, and

Social support and one-year outcomes for women participating in prison-based substance abuse treatment programming – 2018-01

In recent decades, the number of women under criminal justice supervision has increased considerably, many of whom are serving time for drug offenses. Furthermore, women in prison are more likely than their non-institutionalized counterparts to suffer from a substance abuse disorder. While there is a growing body of research concerning

Emergency physicians’ attitudes and perceived barriers to the implementation of take-home naloxone programs in Canadian emergency departments – 2018-01

Rates of opioid-related deaths have reached the level of national public health crisis in Canada. Community-based opioid overdose education and naloxone distribution (OEND) programs distribute naloxone to people at risk, and the emergency department (ED) may be an underutilized setting to deliver naloxone to these people. The goal of this

Associations between substance use and type of crime in prisoners with substance use problems – a focus on violence and fatal violence – 2018-01-15

Aim: The present study aimed to study the associations between substance use patterns and types of crimes in prisoners with substance use problems, and specifically whether substance use patterns were different in violent offenders. Methods: Interview data of prisoners with substance use problems (N=4,202, mean age 33.5 years, SD 9.8),

Are People Who Inject Drugs Frequent Users of Emergency Department Services? A Cohort Study (2008–2013) – 2017-10

Background: Although people who inject drugs (PWID) have been described as frequent users of emergency services, the majority of research is cross-sectional and involves records from a single emergency department (ED). Objectives: We describe characteristics of state-wide ED presentations in a cohort of PWID, and compare presentation rates to the

Perceived Self-Control is Related to Mental Distress in Patients Entering Substance Use Disorder Treatment – 2018-01

Background: Levels of mental distress are high in patients with substance use disorders (SUD) and investigation of correlates may broaden our understanding of this comorbidity. Objectives: We investigated self-reported symptoms of mental distress among individuals entering either outpatient opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) or other inpatient SUD treatment and related factors,

“I Was Not Sick and I Didn’t Need to Recover”: Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) as a Refuge from Criminalization – 2017-07

Background: Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) in the United States (U.S.) has been undergoing a shift towards conceptualizing the program as recovery-based treatment. Although recovery is seen by some as a means to restore MMT to its rightful position as a medically-based treatment for addiction, it may not represent the experiences,

Primary Care Physicians’ Views about Prescribing Methadone to Treat Opioid Use Disorder – 2017-08

Background: Methadone maintenance treatment is an effective way to reduce harms associated with opioid use disorder and, in several countries, is delivered in community-based primary care settings. Expanding methadone into primary care depends, in part, on physicians’ willingness and readiness to integrate it into their practices. Objectives: This qualitative study

Effect of initiating drug treatment on the risk of drug-related poisoning death and acquisitive crime among offending heroin users – 2018-01

Background A recent Cochrane review of randomised trials identified a lack of evidence for interventions provided to drug-using offenders. We use routine data to address whether contact with treatment services reduces heroin users’ likelihood of a future acquisitive offence or drug-related poisoning (DRP) death. Methods Heroin-users were identified from probation

Examining the Impact of Prior Criminal Justice History on 2-Year Recidivism Rates: A Comparison of Drug Court Participants and Program Referrals – 2016-04-28

Drug courts seek to break the cycle of substance use and crime by providing a community-based intervention to individuals with criminal justice involvement and substance-related issues. This study examined recidivism over a 2-year follow-up period as well as factors associated with recidivism for a sample of drug court participants (i.e.,

Probation Staff Attitudes Toward Substance Abuse Treatment and Evidence-Based Practices – 2016-05-23

Given the substantial need for and relatively low access to effective substance use disorder treatment for people on probation, it is critical to understand organizational and staff attitudes that may hinder or facilitate treatment linkage and willingness to adopt evidence-based practices. This study used survey data from a large county

Content Analysis of Advantages and Disadvantages of Drinking Among Individuals With the Lived Experience of Homelessness and Alcohol Use Disorders – 2018

Background: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are more prevalent among people who are homeless than in the general population. Thus, homeless individuals experience disproportionately high levels of alcohol-related problems and associated publicly funded criminal justice and healthcare system utilization. Available treatment services, however, are not effective at engaging and treating this

Behavioral Addictions and Criminal Responsibility – 2017-12

Certain behavioral addictions pose difficult and unresolved problems for the criminal justice system. These disorders are characterized by strong desire states and may be associated with illegal behaviors that are committed to support the addiction. In this article, we begin with a general account of criminal responsibility and provide the

Prescribing Opioid Replacement Therapy in U.S. Correctional Settings – 2017-12

Opioid addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder associated with criminality, unemployment, infectious diseases, and legal problems. Such addictions are typically over-represented in correctional populations. Inmates with untreated opioid addiction often relapse shortly after release into the community, thereby increasing the risk of overdose, serious illnesses (HIV, hepatitis C) and psychosocial