Gendered violence and overdose prevention sites: a rapid ethnographic study during an overdose epidemic in Vancouver, Canada [2018]

Background and Aims North America’s overdose epidemic is increasingly driven by fentanyl and fentanyl‐adulterated drugs. Supervised consumption sites, including low‐threshold models (termed overdose prevention sites; OPS), are now being debated in the United States and implemented in Canada. Despite evidence that gendered and racialized violence shape access to harm reduction

Comorbid opioid use is undertreated among forensic patients with schizophrenia [2018]

Background Substance use disorders are associated with poorer clinical outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. There is no specific treatment for amphetamine or cannabis use disorder, but methadone and buprenorphine are used as replacement therapy in the treatment of opioid dependence. Our aim was to study whether patients with schizophrenia have

Protocol for a randomized controlled trial of the Breaking Free Online Health and Justice program for substance misuse in prison settings [2018]

Background Substance misuse, including problematic drug and alcohol use, are significant issues in society that can have multiple detrimental effects. Many people access support for their substance misuse during prison sentences, due to the associations between substance misuse and offending, and the high proportion of the prison population who have

Factors Associated With Community Corrections Involvement Among Formerly Incarcerated People in Recovery [2016]

The current study examined whether current community supervision status was associated with differences in demographic characteristics, lifetime substance use patterns, and criminal history among a sample of formerly incarcerated individuals with a history of substance use problems. Results of multivariate analyses revealed participants on community supervision were more likely to

Police Encounters and Experiences among Youths and Adults Who Use Drugs: Qualitative and Quantitative Findings of a Cross-Sectional Study in Victoria, British Columbia [2018]

People who use drugs are disproportionately represented in the criminal justice system in Canada; how they come to be in contact with this system is typically through encounters with police. Understanding the nature of encounters between people who use drugs and police is vital to developing interventions and policing practices

Identifying Predictors of Substance Use and Recidivism Outcome Trajectories Among Drug Treatment Court Clients [2017]

Drug treatment court (DTC) is a diversion program for individuals with drug-related crimes. However, the DTC literature is conflicting with regard to substance use and recidivism outcomes. This study examines factors associated with improved client outcome trajectories among a multisite, national DTC sample. We conducted a secondary analysis of 2,295

Supportive Messages Female Offenders Receive From Probation and Parole Officers About Substance Avoidance: Message Perceptions and Effects [2017]

Substance use is a key reason for initial offending and recidivism for the over one million women on probation and parole in the United States. Social support protects against both recidivism and relapse to substance use. However, many women supervised in the community with a history of substance abuse lack

Counselor Knows Best? Clinician Assessments of In-Prison Substance Abuse Treatment Participants [2017]

Research has examined responses to substance abuse treatment among criminal justice populations primarily through client self-assessments, and comparatively fewer studies have focused on clinician ratings of client progress. Recently, Blasko and Hiller examined counselor ratings and their association with reincarceration but found no relationship between the two. The current study

Insights on Prison Needle and Syringe Programs: Research With Former Prisoners in Canada [2017]

Although injection drug use occurs inside Canadian federal prisons, the correctional service does not allow prisoners access to sterile injection equipment as a harm reduction measure. International evaluations have shown that prison-based needle and syringe programs (PNSPs) lead to many beneficial health and other outcomes, and contribute to safer environments

Medical Marijuana and Crime: Substance Use and Criminal Behaviors in a Sample of Arrestees [2017]

After decades of prohibition, laws allowing marijuana use for medical and, in some cases, recreational purposes have been enacted across the country. To date, however, little is known about medical marijuana use, particularly regarding its relationship to criminal offending and use by nonauthorized persons. The current study bridges this gap

Criminal Justice Contact and Relapse Among Patients Seeking Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder [2017]

The rapid rise in opioid use has recently contributed to several pressing concerns, including an unprecedented number of fatal overdoses, a marked increase in treatment admissions, a spike in emergency department visits, and a significant proportion of adults who test positive for opioids at the time of arrest. The majority

Highs and Lows: An Interrupted Time-Series Evaluation of the Impact of North America’s Only Supervised Injection Facility on Crime [2017]

North America is currently experiencing an opioid crisis. One proposed solution to combat problems associated with injection drug use is the use of supervised injection facilities. These facilities provide drug users a space to inject pre-obtained drugs without any legal repercussions. Research on these facilities has focused on public health

The Relative Influence of Injunctive and Descriptive Social Norms on Methamphetamine, Heroin, and Injection Drug Use Among Homeless Youths: The Impact of Different Referent Groups [2017]

The current study assessed the relative influence of both injunctive and descriptive norms in the context of different referent groups (i.e., family, street peers, home-based peers, and staff members) on past 30-day methamphetamine, heroin, and injection drug use behaviors of homeless youth. Cross-sectional data (N = 911) were collected from

Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use Among Adults in Their Late Twenties: The Importance of Social Bonding Trajectories [2017]

Although weak social bonds are found to be associated with addictive behaviors in cross-sectional studies, few studies have explored the longitudinal impacts of social bonds on nonmedical prescription drug use (NPDU). This study adopted a developmental perspective on social bonds and tested how their different trajectories are associated with NPDU

Treatment Modality, Failure, and Re-Arrest: A Test of the Risk Principle With Substance-Abusing Criminal Defendants [2016]

Demographic, criminal history, instant case, treatment modality, program failure, and re-arrest data were collected from 400 New York City drug court participants. Actuarial risk scores were created for program failure and re-arrest by performing stepwise logistic regressions based on criminal history, present case, and demographic predictors of these outcomes. Placement

Beneficial and detrimental effects of genetic explanations for addiction [2017]

Background: Addictions are highly stigmatized and increasingly construed as biomedical diseases caused by genes, partly to reduce stigma by deflecting blame. However, genetic explanations may have negative effects, which have been understudied in the context of addiction. How the effects of genetic explanations might differ for substance addictions versus behavioral

Psychopathy, the Big Five and empathy as predictors of violence in a forensic sample of substance abusers

It is widely recognized that substance abuse increases the general risk of delinquency and violent offenses in particular. Substance-related disorders are the primary cause of offenders being sentenced to mandatory treatment in forensic psychiatry. However, instead of a mono-causal link between addiction and violence, additional risk factors must be assumed.

Delinquency and drug use among adolescents and emerging adults: The role of aggression, impulsivity, empathy, and cognitive distortions [2018]

Risk behaviors are well known to be higher in adolescents and emerging adults. Drug use and delinquency present several common predictive factors. The aim of the present study was to assess the contribution of individual factors (aggression, impulsivity, empathy, and cognitive distortions) to delinquent behaviors, alcohol use and cannabis consumption

Substance Use, Criminal Recidivism, and Mortality in Criminal Justice Clients: A Comparison between Men and Women [2018]

Background. This study aimed to map differences between male and female offenders with substance abuse, with respect to descriptive characteristics and risk factors for mortality and criminal recidivism. Methods. Criminal justice clients with substance abuse problems were interviewed with the Addiction Severity Index. Mortality and data on return to criminal