Long-term physical and mental health outcomes associated with traumatic brain injury severity in post-9/11 veterans: A retrospective cohort study [2018]

Objectives: To examine long-term outcomes of self-reported physical and mental health among Post-9/11 Veterans stratified by traumatic brain injury (TBI) severity, we hypothesized that more severe TBI would be associated with significantly poorer outcomes. Methods: A prospective longitudinal survey of physical and mental health status was conducted with a national

Traumatic brain injury as an independent risk factor for problem gambling: a matched case-control study [2018]

Purpose To assess whether traumatic brain injury (TBI) increases the risks of subsequent problem gambling. Methods We conducted a matched case–control analysis of adults in Ontario, Canada. The study included those who self-reported their gambling activities in the Canadian Community Health Survey 2007–2008. Using Problem Gambling Severity Index, we defined

Traumatic brain injury, temperament, and violence in incarcerated youth: a mediation analysis based on Delisi and Vaughn’s theory of temperament and antisocial behavior [2018]

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with violent behavior. A possible key mechanism to explain the relationship between TBI and violence is DeLisi and Vaughn’s temperament-based theory of antisocial behavior. Accordingly, the current study investigates whether temperament – the combination of effortful control and negative emotionality – mediates the relationship

Incidence and Associated Risk Factors of Traumatic Brain Injury in a Cohort of Homeless and Vulnerably Housed Adults in 3 Canadian Cities [2017]

Objective: To examine the factors associated with incident traumatic brain injury (TBI) among homeless and vulnerably housed persons over a 3-year follow-up period. Setting and participants: Data were obtained from the Health and Housing in Transition study, which tracked the health and housing status of 1190 homeless or vulnerably housed

Violence-Related Traumatic Brain Injury in Justice-Involved Women [2018]

The present study investigated gender differences in the prevalence and incidence of violence-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) among justice-involved individuals, as well as potential associations between violence-related TBI and select biopsychosocial variables among women in the sample. Data from 409 justice-involved individuals were analyzed, and men and women were compared

Neurocognitive testing in the emergency department: A potential assessment tool for mild traumatic brain injury [2018]

Objective Despite mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) accounting for 80% of head injury diagnoses, recognition of individuals at risk of cognitive dysfunction remains a challenge in the acute setting. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and potential role for computerised cognitive testing as part of a

Trends in self-reported traumatic brain injury among Canadians, 2005-2014: a repeated cross-sectional analysis [2017]

Background: Concussion and other traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are a form of unintentional injury that has been associated with both short- and long-term health effects, including possible disability. We investigated time trends in the incidence of all types of injury and TBIs among Canadians, and assessed characteristics of TBIs. Methods:

Functional Outcomes and Health-Related Quality of Life After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Review [2018]

Throughout recovery, patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) show physical and functional improvement, but continue to have cognitive and psychosocial problems. The aim of this article was to review the literature regarding the functional and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes in severe TBI. There were 15 articles reviewed,

Cognitive behavioural therapy for aggression among individuals with moderate to severe acquired brain injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis [2018]

Background: Aggression is common after an acquired brain injury (ABI). Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is a form of psychotherapy, in which therapists help patients to identify their maladaptive behaviours. Objective: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness of CBT interventions in treating aggression in

Traumatic brain injury, temperament, and violence in incarcerated youth: a mediation analysis based on Delisi and Vaughn’s theory of temperament and antisocial behavior [2018]

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with violent behavior. A possible key mechanism to explain the relationship between TBI and violence is DeLisi and Vaughn’s temperament-based theory of antisocial behavior. Accordingly, the current study investigates whether temperament – the combination of effortful control and negative emotionality – mediates the relationship

Who’s challenging who training for staff empathy towards adults with challenging behaviour: cluster randomised controlled trial [2018]

Background One in five adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) known to services display challenging behaviours (CBs), and these individuals are at risk for restrictive practices and poor care. Staff attitudes may contribute to the development and/or maintenance of CBs. We investigated the effectiveness of co‐produced Who’s Challenging Who? training delivered

Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Aggression, Impulsivity, and History of Other- and Self-Directed Aggression [2018]

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is highly prevalent, with an estimated occurrence in the United States of more than 1.3 million per year. While one consequence of mTBI is impulsive aggressive behavior, very few studies have examined the relationship between history of mTBI and aggressive behavior in impulsively aggressive individuals.

Prevalence of Head Injury and Associated Disability in Prison Populations: A Systematic Review [2018]

Objective: This review systematically assesses literature on the prevalence of head injury (HI) and associated disability in adults in prison. Methods: Searches were carried out using electronic databases (PsycINFO, Cochrane Databases, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science). Reference lists of 2 meta-analyses were checked for relevant articles. Methods were rated for

Beyond Traumatic Brain Injury: Advancing Forensic Neuropsychological Assessment [2018]

As research on the cognitive impact of medical conditions and mental health disorders advances, it is imperative for forensic neuropsychologists to stay abreast of rapidly accumulating new empirical evidence from neuroscience and neuropsychology to disentangle multiple determinants of cognitive impairment. Although medicolegal neuropsychological assessments traditionally focused on traumatic brain injury

Differences between staff groups in perception of risk assessment and risk management of inappropriate sexual behaviour in patients with traumatic brain injury [2018]

This research explored staff perceptions of risk assessment and management of inappropriate sexual behaviour (ISB) displayed in patients following a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). The primary focus was to determine differences in perceptions between qualified (N = 40) and direct care staff (N = 47). Vignettes depicting ISB displayed by a male following a

Health-related quality of life in prisoners with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and head injury [2018]

Background Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and head injury (including traumatic brain injury (TBI)) manifest in high levels across prison samples and guidance from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence notes that people with acquired brain injury may have increased prevalence of ADHD. We aimed to examine the association

‘I am not drunk, I have an ABI’: findings from a qualitative study into systematic challenges in responding to people with acquired brain injuries in the justice system [2018]

The over-representation of acquired brain injury (ABI) amongst prisoner and juvenile justice populations is a significant issue across jurisdictions. This article reports on the findings of over 100 interviews conducted in Victoria, Australia with people who have an ABI, as well as key stakeholder groups who work in, or with,