What influences social outcomes among offenders with personality disorder: A systematic review [2018]

Background Personality disorder is highly prevalent in offender populations and is associated with poor health, criminal justice, and social outcomes. Research has been conducted into factors that influence offending and health, but, in order to improve (re)habilitation, service providers must also be able to identify the variables associated with social

Outcome of serious violent offenders with psychotic illness and cognitive disorder dealt with by the New South Wales criminal justice system – 2018

Background: The few studies of the recidivism by people with psychotic illness and cognitive disorder who are convicted of serious violent offences and sentenced by the courts. Method: Re-imprisonment data were obtained for 661 individuals convicted of serious non-lethal violent offences in the District Courts of New South Wales in

Australian prison vocational education and training and returns to custody among male and female ex-prisoners: A cross-jurisdictional study – 2018

The current study examined the impact of vocational education and training in the custody setting on returns to custody among Australian adult prisoners from selected jurisdictions. Vocational education and training, education, and behavioural change programme participation in custody and demographic and risk assessment data were provided by correctional services in

Comparing the criminal careers and childhood risk factors of persistent, chronic, and persistent–chronic offenders – 2018

There have been few efforts to conceptually and empirically distinguish persistent and chronic offenders, despite the prominence of these concepts in the criminological literature. Research has not yet examined if different childhood risk factors are associated with offenders who have the longest criminal careers (persistent offenders), commit the most offences

Do risk assessment tools help manage and reduce risk of violence and reoffending? A systematic review – 2018

Although it is widely believed that risk assessment tools can help manage risk of violence and offending, it is unclear what evidence exists to support this view. As such, we conducted a systematic review and narrative synthesis. To identify studies, we searched 13 databases, reviewed reference lists, and contacted experts.

The home-field advantage and the perils of professional judgment: Evaluating the performance of the Static-99R and the MnSOST-3 in predicting sexual recidivism – 2018

When sex offenders in Minnesota are assigned risk levels prior to their release from prison, correctional staff frequently exercise professional judgment by overriding the presumptive risk level per an offender’s score on the Minnesota Sex Offender Screening Tool−3 (MnSOST-3), a sexual recidivism risk-assessment instrument. These overrides enabled us to evaluate

Criminal history and social disadvantage as predictors of the severity of violent offending – 2018

Lethal violence is often seen as the tip of the iceberg and homicide perpetrators are seen as manifesting the most extreme number of various risk factors. This article explores whether that is the case. Using a unique data set combining data from several administrative registers with a nationally representative sample

Successful Reintegration and Mental Health: An Examination of Gender Differences Among Reentering Offenders – 2018

Men and women exiting the correctional system represent a population at high risk for mental health problems, and the body of research on the mental health needs of former prisoners is growing. These mental health problems pose challenges for individuals at every stage of the criminal justice process, from arrest

The Impact of Mindfulness Meditation and Self-Compassion on Criminal Impulsivity in a Prisoner Sample – 2018

Previous studies indicate a link between mindfulness practice and improvements in self-compassion Neff (Self and identity 2(2):85–101, 2003b), self-regulation Baer (Clinical psychology: Science and practice 10(2):125–143, 2003), and a reduction in criminality Rainforth (Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 36(1–4):181–203, 2003). Similarly, self-compassion has been linked to greater self-control among criminals Morley

Drawing the Line: Empirical Recidivism Results From a Natural Experiment Raising the Age of Criminal Responsibility – 2018

Every state maintains some mechanism by which youths can be tried as adults in criminal courts. While scholars have long debated the inherent benefits or detriments of prosecuting youths as adults, empirical studies of actual outcomes have provided mixed findings and have been limited by problems of selection bias and

Drug Use and Violence Among Adolescents: The Mediation Effect of Attitudes Supporting Violence – 2018

The aim of this article is to study the impact of violent attitudes on the drug use/violent delinquency relationship. A total of 1,420 adolescents from the province of Rimini (Italy) completed a questionnaire concerning drug use, violent behaviors, and attitudes toward violence. In general, the results seem to confirm that

Socioeconomic disadvantage and psychological deficits: Pathways from early cumulative risk to late-adolescent criminal conviction – 2018

Early exposure to multiple risk factors has been shown to predict criminal offending, but the mechanisms responsible for this association are poorly understood. Integrating social-environmental and dispositional theories of crime this research investigated the capacity of family socioeconomic disadvantage and individual psychological deficits to mediate the association between childhood cumulative

Associations between posttraumatic stress and legal charges among substance using veterans – 2018

Substance misuse is prevalent among veterans entering the criminal justice system, and is related to recidivism. Research demonstrates that trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, which commonly co-occur with substance misuse, also increase the risk of legal involvement and recidivism. However, it is unclear whether the associations between trauma,

Mental Health Among Incarcerated Women: An Examination of Factors Impacting Depression and PTSD Symptomology – 2018

Female offenders experience mental health symptoms at a higher rate than male offenders and females in the community. The current study investigated individual characteristics and experiences that may impact symptoms of depressive disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among a sample of female inmates in a large Southern prison system.

Despair Will Hold You Prisoner, Hope Will Set You Free: Hope and Meaning Among Released Prisoners – 2018

The current study examines the self-image and worldviews of 10 released prisoners in Israel through narrative analysis of their life stories, including past and present periods in their lives and future aspirations. The findings reveal a chaotic past perceived as lacking meaning, hope, and clear boundaries while being devoid of

Medication state at the time of the offense: Medication noncompliance, insight and criminal responsibility – 2018

This study used a mixed quantitative‐qualitative methodology to examine whether mock jurors considered a defendant’s meta‐responsibility – specifically, the defendant’s medication noncompliance and degree of insight into his/her schizophrenia – when determining the person’s criminal responsibility. The degree of expert witness explanation regarding these factors was also varied. Participants (n

Interventions That Target Criminogenic Needs for Justice-Involved Persons With Serious Mental Illnesses: A Targeted Service Delivery Approach – 2018

This research describes the development of a targeted service delivery approach that tailors the delivery of interventions that target criminogenic needs to the specific learning and treatment needs of justice-involved people with serious mental illnesses (SMIs). This targeted service delivery approach includes five service delivery strategies: repetition and summarizing, amplification,

Do Demographic Factors Moderate How Well Criminal Thinking Predicts Recidivism? 2018

Is the relationship between criminal thinking and recidivism the same for criminal justice–involved individuals from varying demographic backgrounds? Relying on two independent samples of offenders and two measures of criminal thinking, the current studies examined whether four demographic factors—gender, race, age, and education—moderated the relationship between criminal thinking and recidivism.