Risk assessment communication difficulties: An empirical examination of the effects of categorical versus probabilistic risk communication in sexually violent predator decisions [2018]

Expert testimony concerning risk and its communication to the trier of fact has important implications for some of the most significant legal decisions. In a simulated sexual violent predator hearing, we examined how mock jurors interpret and use recidivism risk expert testimony communicated either categorically, using verbal labels, or probabilistically,

An update and expansion on the role of the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide and Historical Clinical Risk Management‐20 in United States case law [2018]

An individual’s risk for future violent behavior may be considered in various legal contexts, including civil commitment, criminal sentencing, or suitability for parole. Among the assessment tools forensic evaluators use to assess violence risk are the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG; Quinsey, Harris, Rice, & Cormier, 1998) and the Historical

Predictive accuracy of static risk factors for Canadian Indigenous offenders compared to non-Indigenous offenders: implications for risk assessment scales [2018]

The over-representation of Indigenous offenders in Canadian prisons highlights the importance of research on the generalizability of potential static risk factors for this group. The current investigation examined whether 87 static indicators currently assessed in Canadian federal prisons were differentially present and related to outcomes (revocations, general recidivism, and violent

Psychopathological Assessment of Risk of Restraint in Acute Psychiatric Patients [2017]

The study aims to identify independent predictors of physical restraint in acute psychiatric patients and to determine the predictive power of a risk assessment model centered on psychopathological dimensions. We included 1552 patients admitted to a psychiatric intensive care unit over a 5-year period. Patients were rated on the Brief

Violence risk identification, assessment, and management practices in inpatient psychiatry [2018]

Serious mental illness is a major risk factor for violence. Research suggests that many committed psychiatric inpatients have perpetrated violence before, during, and after hospitalization. Despite the prevalence and implications of violence among committed psychiatric patients, the responsibility of health care professionals to identify, assess and manage violence risk, and

Risk Assessment in Habitual Offenders With Substance Use Problems: A Quasi-Prospective Study of the Predictive Validity of the HKT-30 [2018]

The predictive validity of the Dutch risk assessment instrument HKT-30 was investigated with a quasi-prospective design in a sample of habitual offenders with a substance use disorder (SUD). The study is reported according to RAGEE guidelines. The HKT-30 is an extension of the HCR-20. Files of 89 patients were coded

Sensitivity of Error: An Examination of the Impact of Human Mistakes on Offender Risk Classification Validity [2018]

Human error in offender risk assessment can take many forms, including assessment staff bias and mistakes in official records. The effect of these human mistakes on outcomes depends on the “sensitivity of error” of the risk assessment instruments. Yet how these human errors influence risk classification outcomes has remained speculative.

Predictive accuracy of static risk factors for Canadian Indigenous offenders compared to non-Indigenous offenders: Implications for risk assessment scales [2018]

The over-representation of Indigenous offenders in Canadian prisons highlights the importance of research on the generalizability of potential static risk factors for this group. The current investigation examined whether 87 static indicators currently assessed in Canadian federal prisons were differentially present and related to outcomes (revocations, general recidivism, and violent

Assessing Dynamic Violence Risk in a High-Risk Treated Sample of Violent Offenders [2018]

The present study featured an investigation of the predictive properties of risk and change scores of two violence risk assessment and treatment planning tools—the Violence Risk Scale (VRS) and the Historical, Clinical, Risk–20, Version 2 (HCR-20)—in sample of 178 treated adult male violent offenders who attended a high-intensity violence reduction

An Independent Investigation Into the Psychometric Properties of the Adult Scale of Hostility and Aggression (A-SHARP) [2017]

Background: The Adult Scale of Hostility and Aggression (A-SHARP) rating scale assesses the frequency/severity (problem scale) and the reactive-proactive motivation (provocation scale) of aggressive behaviors in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Items are assigned to five subscales (Verbal Aggression, Physical Aggression, Hostile Affect, Covert Aggression, and Bullying). Although psychometric properties

Identifying patients at risk of inpatient aggression at the time of admission to acute mental health care. What factors should clinicians consider? [2016]

Objective: The aim of this study was to identify, at the time of admission, predictors of aggression in adults admitted to acute mental health care. Method: Adult patients (n = 350) consecutively admitted to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) in Sri Lanka were assessed for a wide range of dispositional,

A data science approach to predicting patient aggressive events in a psychiatric hospital [2018]

Highlights• Machine learning was used to optimize modeling of patient aggressive events in a large set of electronic health records in a safety net psychiatric facility. • The best-performing algorithm (penalized generalized linear modeling) achieved an area under the curve = 0.7801. • The strongest predictors of patient aggressive events were homelessness, having witnessed

Mentalization and empathy as predictors of violence in schizophrenic patients: Comparison with nonviolent schizophrenic patients, violent controls and nonviolent controls [2018]

Highlights• There are no differences in mentalisation in violent and nonviolent schizophrenics. • Worse mentaliation is related to schizophrenia but not violence in this illness. • Violence in schizophrenics and controls has different predictors. Abstract There are conflicting results concerning risk of violence in schizophrenia. Empathy and mentalization deficits are associated both with

Using the Personality Assessment Inventory Antisocial and Borderline Features Scales to Predict Behavior Change: A Multisite Longitudinal Study of Youthful Offenders [2018]

A substantial amount of research has examined the developmental trajectory of antisocial behavior and, in particular, the relationship between antisocial behavior and maladaptive personality traits. However, research typically has not controlled for previous behavior (e.g., past violence) when examining the utility of personality measures, such as self-report scales of antisocial

Violence risk communication: What do judges and forensic clinicians prefer and understand? [2016]

The purpose of the current study was to investigate judges’ and forensic clinicians’ preferences for categorical risk assessment schemas and their probabilistic equivalents of categorical terms. In addition, this study expanded on the results of Monahan and Silver (2003) by examining forensic clinicians’ and judges’ threshold for when the probability

Sexually violent predator risk assessments with the violence risk appraisal guide-revised: A shaky practice [2017]

Twenty-two jurisdictions in the United States permit the involuntary civil confinement of sexual offenders upon expiration of their criminal sentence and, if committed, these individuals face possible lifetime commitment. One of the legal requirements that psychologists must address in sexually violent predator evaluations is the likelihood that an individual will

Low Risk Offenders Under Probation Supervision: Risk Management and the Risk-Needs-Responsivity Framework [2018]

Community supervision agencies commonly use resource allocation models to identify the amount of monitoring and treatment to provide individuals under supervision. The risk-needs-responsivity model guides these decisions, suggesting the level of supervision should align with one’s risk level, with fewer services provided to those at a lower risk of recidivism.