Predicting Offenders’ Institutional Misconduct and Recidivism: The Utility of Behavioral Ratings by Prison Officers [2018]

Measures of current behavior are rarely incorporated into risk assessment. Therefore, the current study used a behavior rating scale to assess prison officers’ observations of inmates prison behavior and examined the contribution of these ratings for risk assessment. Prison officers rated 272 sexual and violent offenders in three different correctional

On the Link Between Emotionally Driven Impulsivity and Aggression: Evidence From a Validation Study on the Dutch UPPS-P [2017]

The UPPS-P seems to be a promising instrument for measuring different domains of impulsivity in forensic psychiatric patients. Validation studies of the instrument however, have been conducted only in student groups. In this validation study, three groups completed the Dutch UPPS-P: healthy student (N = 94) and community (N =

Discrimination and Calibration Properties of the Level of Service Inventory–Ontario Revision in a Correctional Mental Health Sample

We examined the predictive properties of the Level of Service Inventory–Ontario Revision (LSI-OR) in a sample of 604 provincially incarcerated men with mental illness from a correctional mental health facility followed up nearly 2 years after release. Recidivism base rates and LSI-OR scores were relatively consistent across major mental disorder

Assessing Intervention Needs of Juvenile Probationers: An Application of Latent Profile Analysis to a Risk–Need–Responsivity Assessment Model [2018]

The assessment of criminogenic risk is critical in the prediction of future delinquency and the ability to provide appropriate services and interventions for youth offenders. The goal of this study was to determine whether using latent profile analysis (LPA) produced better risk classification profiles than traditional linear methods. Archival data

Indigenous perspectives on violence risk assessment: A thematic analysis [2018]

Violence risk instruments are widely employed with at-risk minority clients in correctional and forensic mental health settings. However, the construction and subsequent validation of such instruments rarely, if at all, incorporate the perceptions, worldviews, life experiences, and belief systems of non-white communities. This study utilized a culturally informed qualitative approach

Layers of Bias: A Unified Approach for Understanding Problems With Risk Assessment [2018]

Scholars in several fields, including quantitative methodologists, legal scholars, and theoretically oriented criminologists, have launched robust debates about the fairness of quantitative risk assessment. As the Supreme Court considers addressing constitutional questions on the issue, we propose a framework for understanding the relationships among these debates: layers of bias. In

Testing the validity of criminal risk assessment tools in sexually abusive youth [2018]

Although accurate risk appraisals are mandatory to provide effective treatment to juveniles who have sexually offended (JSOs), the current knowledge on the validity of risk assessment instruments for JSOs is inconclusive. We compared the predictive validities of the Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol II (J-SOAP II), the Estimate of Risk

High-Risk Violent Prisoners’ Patterns of Change on Parole on the DRAOR’s Dynamic Risk and Protective Factors [2017]

Few studies have examined change after treatment completion; such investigations can enhance our understanding of how a rehabilitative intervention leads to reduced recidivism. The current study uses growth curve modeling to investigate change in dynamic risk factors in the community, following two samples of high-risk violent men for up to

Gender and Risk Assessment in Juvenile Offenders: A Meta-Analysis [2017]

Although young males are still the primary perpetrators of juvenile crime, the percentage of girls experiencing criminal justice system contact has risen. To identify effective interventions and address public concerns regarding juvenile crime, scholars and practitioners have assessed recidivism risk using tools such as the Youth Level of Service (YLS)

The Relationship Between Changes in Dynamic Risk Factors and the Predictive Validity of Risk Assessments Among Youth Offenders [2017]

The Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) is a widely used risk assessment tool for youth offenders. It is intended to be administered regularly to capture changes in criminogenic needs and thus inform case management during a youth’s sentence. However, there is a dearth of research examining whether updated

Broken Legs, Clinical Overrides, and Recidivism Risk: An Analysis of Decisions to Adjust Risk Levels With the LS/CMI [2017]

Risk assessment practices have evolved considerably over the past three decades. Structured assessments of recidivism risk allow for the proper identification of criminogenic needs, which in turn, allow decision makers to make informed recommendations regarding criminal justice interventions and measures. Although actuarial assessments are common practice, situations exist where evaluators

The Role of Tablet-Based Psychological Tasks in Risk Assessment [2017]

Risk assessment has become a prominent part of the criminal justice system in many jurisdictions, typically relying on structured questions and an interview. This approach, however, may not accurately assess certain psychological concepts correlated with reoffense, such as executive functioning, ability to plan, impulse control, risk-taking, aggression, and empathy. We

Psychometric Properties of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire Among a Sample of Detained and Community Girls [2017]

Research on adolescent aggression often distinguishes between reactive and proactive aggression, but there is limited knowledge regarding the application or measurement of these subtypes of aggression among female youth, especially forensic samples of female youth. Drawing on 377 girls (103 selected from forensic settings and 274 selected from school settings)

Validity and Predictive Accuracy of the Structured Assessment of Protective Factors for Violence Risk in Criminal Forensic Evaluations: A Swiss Cross-Validation Retrospective Study [2016]

Some actuarial and structured professional judgment (SPJ) risk-assessment instruments have already demonstrated their validity and predictive accuracy in expert criminal forensic evaluations. In contrast, little is known about the effectiveness of instruments identifying protective factors in risk of recidivism prediction. The present study was designed to evaluate the validity and

Prediction of Psychiatric Hospitalization, Diagnoses, Arrests, and Violent Behavior Through Scored Drawings and Associations [2017]

The article presents a completely empirical approach to using drawings and associations as a supplemental tool in forensic psychological assessment. The present system represents a modern alternative to prior theory-driven “projective technique” approaches that have failed to pass scientific scrutiny. Using an archival sample of 252 forensic cases, House-Tree-Person drawing

Beyond Recidivism: Exploring the Predictive Validity of a Correctional Risk Assessment Tool on Offender Victimization [2017]

A vast body of past research on correctional risk assessment instruments supports their validity in predicting measures of recidivism across diverse offender population samples. Despite similarities in the risk factors for victimization and offending, little is known about whether the generalizability of these actuarial tools can be extended beyond recidivism

Risk assessment communication difficulties: An empirical examination of the effects of categorical versus probabilistic risk communication in sexually violent predator decisions [2018]

Expert testimony concerning risk and its communication to the trier of fact has important implications for some of the most significant legal decisions. In a simulated sexual violent predator hearing, we examined how mock jurors interpret and use recidivism risk expert testimony communicated either categorically, using verbal labels, or probabilistically,