Veterans Treatment Court research: Participant characteristics, outcomes, and gaps in the literature [2018]

In the United States, there are increasing numbers of Veterans Treatment Courts (VTCs) that have been developed to improve Veteran reintegration. Our scoping study examined VTC scholarship published between 2008 and 2016 and summarized participant profiles, services provided, and effectiveness and implementation of VTCs. Of 1,207 sources pertaining to VTC,

Investigating the Impact of Child Maltreatment Histories on Drug Court Outcomes [2018]

Although child maltreatment, mental illness, and substance abuse are significantly correlated, only the relationship between mental illness and substance abuse has been documented as potentially affecting the implementation of criminal justice policy. The current study considers the influence of child maltreatment histories in addition to mental health and substance abuse

Identifying Predictors of Substance Use and Recidivism Outcome Trajectories Among Drug Treatment Court Clients [2017]

Drug treatment court (DTC) is a diversion program for individuals with drug-related crimes. However, the DTC literature is conflicting with regard to substance use and recidivism outcomes. This study examines factors associated with improved client outcome trajectories among a multisite, national DTC sample. We conducted a secondary analysis of 2,295

Beyond the “Revolving Door?”: Incentives and Criminal Recidivism in a Mental Health Court [2017]

Specialized mental health courts (MHCs) address the growing problem of defendants with mental illness cycling through the criminal justice system. Employing a mixed-methods approach, this article explores if MHCs can slow the “revolving door” of criminal justice involvement. We use quantitative data to evaluate the effectiveness of one MHC on

Treatment Modality, Failure, and Re-Arrest: A Test of the Risk Principle With Substance-Abusing Criminal Defendants [2016]

Demographic, criminal history, instant case, treatment modality, program failure, and re-arrest data were collected from 400 New York City drug court participants. Actuarial risk scores were created for program failure and re-arrest by performing stepwise logistic regressions based on criminal history, present case, and demographic predictors of these outcomes. Placement

Integrating injectable opioid agonist treatment into a drug treatment court program: A case study [2018]

Background: A substantial proportion of individuals involved with the North American criminal justice system are convicted for drug-related activities. Drug treatment court (DTC) programs were developed as an alternative to incarceration for drug-related offences and aim to prioritize addiction treatment and improve health and social outcomes; however, only a fraction

Exploring the Relationship Between Dual Diagnosis and Recidivism in Drug Court Participants [2018]

There is limited research investigating the relationship between dual diagnosis and offender outcomes in drug court settings, specifically regarding recidivism. The current study examined the effects of dual diagnosis on recidivism following participation in one drug court in the Southwestern United States. Results provided mixed evidence surrounding the impact of

Examining Individual Characteristics and Program Performance to Understand Two-Year Recidivism Rates Among Drug Court Participants: Comparing Graduates and Terminators [2018]

Drug courts strive to break the cycle of substance use and crime by providing community-based treatment and rehabilitation. The purpose of the present study was to (a) identify significantly different factors between program participants (i.e., graduates/terminators) that may affect recidivism and (b) examine these significant individual and program performance factors

Today was not a good day: offender accounts of the incidents that led to their admission to drug court [2018]

One method that has been touted to help end mass incarceration is using intermediate sanctions. While intermediate sanctions often present as attractive options, there is evidence that as practiced, these sanctions often result in net widening. One of the most common forms of intermediate sanctions are drug courts, which are

A Comparison of Participants in Two Community-Based Programs: Assisted Outpatient Treatment and a Mental Health Court [2018]

Objective: Mental health courts and assisted outpatient treatment (AOT) are tools to help people with serious mental illness engage in treatment and avoid or reduce institutionalization. As both programs become increasingly prevalent, questions remain about whether people with severe mental illness who receive AOT have the same characteristics, histories, and

Prison sentences: last resort or the default sanction? [2018]

This paper discusses the sentencing purposes for penal penalties, judges’ perceptions of sentencing purposes and prison sentences, and the effects of penal sanctions. We examine judges’ positions towards different penalties, with a focus on imprisonment, since their views on the different penalties are related to their sentencing decision-making. Understanding these

Evaluation of Treatment and Other Factors That Lead to Drug Court Success, Substance Use Reduction, and Mental Health Symptomatology Reduction Over Time [2018]

Adults presenting with substance use and mental health disorders in the criminal justice system is well documented. While studies have examined drug courts and medication-assisted treatment (MAT), few have examined social and behavioral health indicators, and even fewer have multiple study periods. This study employed a comprehensive approach to studying

Improving the quality of drug court clinical screening: a call for performance measurement policy reform [2018]

Despite the widespread use of the drug court model, standardized performance measures for drug courts are not uniformly utilized, and rarely include process measures. To ensure that drug courts are being implemented in the most effective manner, the use of performance measurement tools should be considered for wide scale adoption.

Integrating injectable opioid agonist treatment into a Drug Treatment Court program: A case study [2018]

Background: A substantial proportion of individuals involved with the North American criminal justice system are convicted for drug-related activities. Drug treatment court (DTC) programs were developed as an alternative to incarceration for drug-related offences and aim to prioritize addiction treatment and improve health and social outcomes; however, only a fraction

The Effectiveness of a Mental Health Court in Reducing Recidivism in Individuals with Severe Mental Illness and Comorbid Substance Use Disorder [2018]

The current study examined the efficacy of a specialized mental health court in reducing recidivism for severely mentally ill defendants with comorbid substance use disorders. There is a wealth of research supporting the efficacy of mental health courts in reducing recidivism for those with severe mental illness; however, the benefit

A Comparison of Participants in Two Community-Based Programs: Assisted Outpatient Treatment and a Mental Health Court [2018]

Objective: Mental health courts and assisted outpatient treatment (AOT) are tools to help people with serious mental illness engage in treatment and avoid or reduce institutionalization. As both programs become increasingly prevalent, questions remain about whether people with severe mental illness who receive AOT have the same characteristics, histories, and

Participants’ views on the strengths and limitations of drug court: Recommendations to enhance assessment and treatment of mental illnesses – 2018

Since 1989, drug courts have provided an alternative to incarceration for arrestees who have a substance use disorder. Previous research has suggested that participants who graduate from the program are less likely to recidivate than those who are terminated from the program. The majority of research on drug courts is