Do Investments in Mental Health Systems Result in Greater Use of Mental Health Services? National Trends in Mental Health Service Use (MHSU) in the Canadian Military and Comparable Canadian Civilians, 2002-2013 – 2018-02

Background: Mental disorders constitute a significant public health problem worldwide. Ensuring that those who need mental health services access them in an appropriate and timely manner is thus an important public health priority. We used data from 4 cross-sectional, nationally representative population health surveys that employed nearly identical methods to

Psychosocial understanding of self-stigma among people who seek treatment for drug addiction – 2018

Substance use disorder is one of the most stigmatized health conditions. Stigma internalization is one of the main consequences of the stigmatization process, and it is associated with lower self-esteem and self-efficacy and worse recovery prospects. It may also bring guilt, hopelessness, anxiety, self-devaluation, and depression. This study investigated self-stigma

What features of psychopathy might be central? A network analysis of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in three large samples – 2018

Despite a wealth of research, the core features of psychopathy remain hotly debated. Using network analysis, an innovative and increasingly popular statistical tool, the authors mapped the network structure of psychopathy, as operationalized by the Psychopathy Checklist—Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003) in two large U.S. offender samples (nNIMH = 1559; nWisconsin

Are there sex differences in the etiology of youth antisocial behavior? – 2018

Sex differences in the etiology of youth antisocial behavior are an intuitively appealing hypothesis given the consistently higher prevalence of antisocial behavior in boys versus girls. Although a few early studies supported this possibility, reporting stronger genetic influences in females and stronger environmental influences in males, subsequent meta-analyses found that

Association between alcohol and substance use disorders and psychiatric service use in patients with severe mental illness: a nationwide Danish register-based cohort study – 2018-02

Substance use disorder is highly prevalent in people with psychiatric disorders, and known to impede the psychiatric treatment. Some studies show increased rates of service use, while others show a decrease. These conflicting results are further hampered by a lack of large-scale studies. The aim of this study was to

An algorithm for managing adults who refuse medical treatment in New South Wales – 2018-02

Objectives: The assessment and management of a patient who refuses medical treatment requires clinical skill, and consideration of the relevant law and the patient’s decision-making capacity. Psychiatrists are often asked to advise in these situations. We aimed to develop an algorithm describing the relevant legal pathways to assist clinicians, especially

Mobilizing Community Health Workers to Address Mental Health Disparities for Underserved Populations: A Systematic Review – 2018-03

This systematic review evaluates efforts to date to involve community health workers (CHWs) in delivering evidence-based mental health interventions to underserved communities in the United States and in low- and middle-income countries. Forty-three articles (39 trials) were reviewed to characterize the background characteristics of CHW, their role in intervention delivery,

Length of Involuntary Hospitalization Related to the Referring Physician’s Psychiatric Emergency Experience – 2018-03

Although involuntary commitment (IC) is a serious intervention in psychiatry and must always be regarded as an emergency measure, the knowledge about influencing factors is limited. Aims were to test the hypothesis that duration of involuntary hospitalization and associated parameters differ for IC’s mandated by physicians with or with less

“It’s Not Like Therapy”: Patient-Inmate Perspectives on Jail Psychiatric Services – 2018-03

Jails may serve an important public health function by treating individuals with psychiatric problems. However, scholars debate the service qualities that can best achieve this aim. Some suggest the possibility of comprehensive psychiatric services in jails, while others recommend a narrower focus on basic elements of care (assessments, medication management,

Self-stigma as a barrier to recovery: a longitudinal study – 2018-03

Stigma limits life opportunities of persons with mental illness. Self-stigma, the internalization of negative stereotypes, undermines empowerment and could hinder recovery. Here we examined self-stigma’s effect on recovery among 222 disability pensioners with mental illness over 2 years, controlling for age, gender, symptoms and recovery at baseline measured by the

Accessing drug treatment courts do age, race or gender matter? – 2018-02

To ensure equitable access to diversion from custody, Canadian drug treatment courts should accept referrals whose age, gender, and Indigenous race proportions are similar to probation or custody admissions. Of particular concern are Indigenous offenders, who are over-represented in Canada’s community and institutional corrections systems. To examine the influence of

Popping the cultural bubble of violence risk assessment tools – 2017-07

Violence risk instruments are administered in medico-legal contexts to estimate an individual’s likelihood of future violence. However, their ostensible limitations; in particular their mono-cultural and risk-centric composition, has drawn academic attention. These concerns may facilitate erroneous risk evaluations for certain non-white populations. Yet it remains unaddressed how cultural differences will

Co-occurring serious mental illnesses and substance use disorders as predictors of assaultive infraction charges among adult male jail inmates – 2017-07

This study used self-report data from 4642 adult male jail inmates to test the hypothesis that inmates with co-occurring serious mental illnesses (SMIs) and substance use disorders (SUDs) (i.e. co-occurring disorders) would report having been officially charged for assaulting staff or inmates more often than inmates without co-occurring disorders. Negative

The impact of an intensive inpatient violent offender treatment programme on intermediary treatment targets, violence risk and aggressive behaviour in a sample of mentally disordered offenders – 2017-08

This study examined the impact of an intensive inpatient violent offender treatment programme, Life Minus Violence-Enhanced (LMV-E), on intermediary treatment targets, risk for violence, and aggressive behaviour during treatment in a sample of male mentally disordered offenders. Using quasi-experimental design, offenders who completed LMV-E and a comparison group showed reduced

Evaluating the Violence Prevention Program: group and individual changes in aggression, anger, self-control, and empathy – 2017-10

While youth violence reduction program is a necessity to prevent long-term criminal and violent offending, its effectiveness in youth violent offenders is not well researched. This study investigated the effectiveness of the Violence Prevention Program (VPP) in addressing the aggression, anger, self-control, and empathy of youth violent offenders. One hundred

Assessing change in dynamic risk factors in forensic psychiatric inpatients: relationship with psychopathy and recidivism – 2017-10

This study explored change in dynamic risk for violence using the Clinical and Risk Management subscales of the Historical Clinical and Risk Management-20 version 3 (HCR-20 v3) and sought to determine whether change was associated with violent recidivism. The association between the magnitude of change and psychopathy was also assessed.