‘I have it just in case’ — Naloxone access and changes in opioid use behaviours – 2018-01

Background The past decade has seen over a four-fold increase in deaths from opioid overdose in the United States. To address this growing epidemic, many localities initiated policies to expand access to naloxone (a drug that reverses the effects of opioids); however, little is known how naloxone access affects opioid

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‘The right way to be a woman’: Negotiating femininity in a prison-based drug treatment programme – 2017-12-22

Drawing from an ethnographic study in a drug treatment wing for women in a Danish prison, the authors explore how femininity is negotiated between prisoners and staff. It is shown how the staff view the prisoners as both passive and disruptive and how the treatment aims to teach them what

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“I Was Not Sick and I Didn’t Need to Recover”: Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) as a Refuge from Criminalization – 2017-07

Background: Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) in the United States (U.S.) has been undergoing a shift towards conceptualizing the program as recovery-based treatment. Although recovery is seen by some as a means to restore MMT to its rightful position as a medically-based treatment for addiction, it may not represent the experiences,

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Are People Who Inject Drugs Frequent Users of Emergency Department Services? A Cohort Study (2008–2013) – 2017-10

Background: Although people who inject drugs (PWID) have been described as frequent users of emergency services, the majority of research is cross-sectional and involves records from a single emergency department (ED). Objectives: We describe characteristics of state-wide ED presentations in a cohort of PWID, and compare presentation rates to the

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Are we anywhere near there yet? The state of harm reduction in North America in 2017

The emergence of the new disease, AIDS (first reported as a clinical syndrome in the USA in 1981), was the principal reason for the birth of harm reduction in the mid to late 1980s. The first appearance of clinical evidence of AIDS was based on the appearance of opportunistic infections

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Associations between substance use and type of crime in prisoners with substance use problems – a focus on violence and fatal violence – 2018-01-15

Aim: The present study aimed to study the associations between substance use patterns and types of crimes in prisoners with substance use problems, and specifically whether substance use patterns were different in violent offenders. Methods: Interview data of prisoners with substance use problems (N=4,202, mean age 33.5 years, SD 9.8),

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Behavioral Addictions and Criminal Responsibility – 2017-12

Certain behavioral addictions pose difficult and unresolved problems for the criminal justice system. These disorders are characterized by strong desire states and may be associated with illegal behaviors that are committed to support the addiction. In this article, we begin with a general account of criminal responsibility and provide the

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Can scare tactics and fear-based messages help deter substance misuse: a systematic review of recent (2005–2017) research – 2018-01-15

Introduction: Historically, substance use prevention relied heavily on scare tactics and fear-based messages. However, these messages were discouraged from use due to research finding them ineffective or harmful. This review sought to determine if recent research continues to support this finding. Methods: We conducted a literature review of relevant peer-reviewed

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Content Analysis of Advantages and Disadvantages of Drinking Among Individuals With the Lived Experience of Homelessness and Alcohol Use Disorders – 2018

Background: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are more prevalent among people who are homeless than in the general population. Thus, homeless individuals experience disproportionately high levels of alcohol-related problems and associated publicly funded criminal justice and healthcare system utilization. Available treatment services, however, are not effective at engaging and treating this

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Effect of initiating drug treatment on the risk of drug-related poisoning death and acquisitive crime among offending heroin users – 2018-01

Background A recent Cochrane review of randomised trials identified a lack of evidence for interventions provided to drug-using offenders. We use routine data to address whether contact with treatment services reduces heroin users’ likelihood of a future acquisitive offence or drug-related poisoning (DRP) death. Methods Heroin-users were identified from probation

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Effects of alcohol on human aggression – 2018-02

Highlights • An integrative framework for alcohol-facilitated aggression is reviewed. • Evidence is presented to support this framework of alcohol–aggression etiology. • This framework organizes factors that may serve as targets for intervention. There is little debate that alcohol is a contributing cause of aggressive behavior. The extreme complexity of

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Emergency physicians’ attitudes and perceived barriers to the implementation of take-home naloxone programs in Canadian emergency departments – 2018-01

Rates of opioid-related deaths have reached the level of national public health crisis in Canada. Community-based opioid overdose education and naloxone distribution (OEND) programs distribute naloxone to people at risk, and the emergency department (ED) may be an underutilized setting to deliver naloxone to these people. The goal of this

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Examining the Impact of Prior Criminal Justice History on 2-Year Recidivism Rates: A Comparison of Drug Court Participants and Program Referrals – 2016-04-28

Drug courts seek to break the cycle of substance use and crime by providing a community-based intervention to individuals with criminal justice involvement and substance-related issues. This study examined recidivism over a 2-year follow-up period as well as factors associated with recidivism for a sample of drug court participants (i.e.,

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Knowledge and possession of take-home naloxone kits among street-involved youth in a Canadian setting: a cohort study – 2017-12-22

Background The distribution of take-home naloxone (THN) kits has been an important strategy in reducing overdose fatalities among people who use drugs. However, little is known about the use of THN among youth who are street-involved. The present study explores knowledge and possession of THN among street-involved youth in a

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Older Former Prisoners’ Pathways to Sobriety – 2017-08-17

This study explores how older age shapes processes of substance abuse cessation among male substance users recently released from prison. Semistructured in-depth interviews and brief surveys were conducted with 15 men age 49+, released from prison in a large, eastern U.S. city. A follow-up interview was conducted with each participant

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Perceived Self-Control is Related to Mental Distress in Patients Entering Substance Use Disorder Treatment – 2018-01

Background: Levels of mental distress are high in patients with substance use disorders (SUD) and investigation of correlates may broaden our understanding of this comorbidity. Objectives: We investigated self-reported symptoms of mental distress among individuals entering either outpatient opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) or other inpatient SUD treatment and related factors,

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Prescribing Opioid Replacement Therapy in U.S. Correctional Settings – 2017-12

Opioid addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder associated with criminality, unemployment, infectious diseases, and legal problems. Such addictions are typically over-represented in correctional populations. Inmates with untreated opioid addiction often relapse shortly after release into the community, thereby increasing the risk of overdose, serious illnesses (HIV, hepatitis C) and psychosocial

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Prevalence, Diagnosis, and Treatment Rates of Mood Disorders among Opioid Users under Criminal Justice Supervision – 2018-01-15

Background: Individuals involved in the criminal justice system have disproportionately high rates of psychiatric disorders when compared to the general U.S. population. If left untreated, the likelihood of subsequent arrest increases and risk for adverse health consequences is great, particularly among opioid users. Objectives: To explore the prevalence, characteristics, and

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Primary Care Physicians’ Views about Prescribing Methadone to Treat Opioid Use Disorder – 2017-08

Background: Methadone maintenance treatment is an effective way to reduce harms associated with opioid use disorder and, in several countries, is delivered in community-based primary care settings. Expanding methadone into primary care depends, in part, on physicians’ willingness and readiness to integrate it into their practices. Objectives: This qualitative study

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Probation Staff Attitudes Toward Substance Abuse Treatment and Evidence-Based Practices – 2016-05-23

Given the substantial need for and relatively low access to effective substance use disorder treatment for people on probation, it is critical to understand organizational and staff attitudes that may hinder or facilitate treatment linkage and willingness to adopt evidence-based practices. This study used survey data from a large county

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Region of Waterloo Drug Treatment Court

This webinar will provide an overview of the Waterloo Region Drug Treatment Court. Drug Treatment Courts were established to break the link between criminal behavior and crime and in so doing, save the lives of the persons caught in the cycle of drug addiction and crime. These courts represent the

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Social support and one-year outcomes for women participating in prison-based substance abuse treatment programming – 2018-01

In recent decades, the number of women under criminal justice supervision has increased considerably, many of whom are serving time for drug offenses. Furthermore, women in prison are more likely than their non-institutionalized counterparts to suffer from a substance abuse disorder. While there is a growing body of research concerning

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Stigma continues to hamper response to opioid epidemic – 2018-01-10

Efforts to reverse the nation’s opioid epidemic remain beset by the stigma associated with drug use, a group of OHSU researchers write in a year-end review. The stigma continues despite the fact that more than one-third of the American population used prescription opioids as of 2015, the authors report. With

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The relationships of classic psychedelic use with criminal behavior in the United States adult population – 2017-10-17

Criminal behavior exacts a large toll on society and is resistant to intervention. Some evidence suggests classic psychedelics may inhibit criminal behavior, but the extent of these effects has not been comprehensively explored. In this study, we tested the relationships of classic psychedelic use and psilocybin use per se with

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Treatment for opioid use and outcomes in older adults: a systematic literature review – 2018-01-01

Background Historically, issues relating to problem substance use among older people have received little attention, and have only recently been recognised. Methods A literature review of relevant material was conducted in November 2015 to assess current outcome research among older adults treated for opioid dependence. Multiple electronic databases were searched

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