‘Cruel and unusual punishment’: an inter-jurisdictional study of the criminalisation of young people with complex support needs – 2018

Although several criminologists and social scientists have drawn attention to the high rates of mental and cognitive disability amongst populations of young people embroiled in youth justice systems, less attention has been paid to the ways in which young people with disability are disproportionately exposed to processes of criminalisation and

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A Family Experience of Youth Justice – Redesigning Responsive Approaches with New Guides and a New Forensic Model for Youth Justice – 2015-11-17

This panel discussion will frame challenges and provide solutions to issues faced by mental health addictions, and justice sectors in addressing the needs, and enabling the strengths of young people under 18-years-of-age and their families. Through discussion of a family’s experience, and the service system response, we identify key needed resources and

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A retrospective analysis of boarding times for adolescents in psychiatric crisis – 2018

The boarding of children and adolescents with identified psychiatric conditions at medical facilities has numerous negative effects on the patients and the systems that treat them. Efforts to minimize boarding times serves to increase patients’ access to appropriate levels of care, redirect medical resources to patients who need them most,

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A retrospective analysis of boarding times for adolescents in psychiatric crisis – 2018-02

The boarding of children and adolescents with identified psychiatric conditions at medical facilities has numerous negative effects on the patients and the systems that treat them. Efforts to minimize boarding times serves to increase patients’ access to appropriate levels of care, redirect medical resources to patients who need them most,

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Acceptance of Online Health Services for Self-Help in the Context of Mental Health: Understanding Young Adults’ Experiences – 2018-02

This article explores the understanding of the acceptance of online health services from a self-help perspective in the context of mental health. By examining the experiences of young adults, this article develops a framework to leverage the current understanding of the factors that would support the acceptance and use of

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Adolescent and Young Adult Male Mental Health: Transforming System Failures Into Proactive Models of Engagement – 2018-03

Adolescent and young adult men do poorly on indicators of mental health evidenced by elevated rates of suicide, conduct disorder, substance use, and interpersonal violence relative to their female peers. Data on global health burden clearly demonstrate that young men have a markedly distinct health risk profile from young women,

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Aggressive Incidents in Residential Youth Care – 2018

It is assumed that group climate can have an effect on aggressive behavior in adolescents living in residential facilities, but it is largely unknown whether there are climate differences between the various types of residential institutions, and whether group climate differently affects aggression incidents among adolescents placed in institutions that

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Aggressive Male Juvenile Offenders with Callous-Unemotional Traits Show Aberrant Attentional Orienting to Distress Cues – 2018

Antisocial youth with callous-unemotional (CU) traits exhibit a pattern of severe and persistent conduct problems and deficits in emotional processing that parallels adults with psychopathy. Aberrant emotional attention, particularly among individuals high on aggression, constitutes one such deficit; however, its robustness across race/ethnicity requires further investigation given findings that the

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An Examination of Parental and Peer Influence on Substance Use and Criminal Offending During the Transition From Adolescence to Adulthood – 2018

Although peer behavior and parent–child conflict have been associated with adolescent and young adults’ behavior, prior studies have not adequately controlled for selection effects and other confounders, or examined whether associations change across the transition to adulthood or by race. Using annual data from men followed from age 17 to

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Applying Restrictive Measures in the Care of Adolescents With Mild Intellectual Disabilities: Attitudes of Support Staff and Policy Implications – 2018

Research suggests that restrictive measures are widely used on adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities. In the Netherlands, restrictive measures are defined as all measures that limit the freedom of a person. In most countries, legislation and policies that seek to reduce the use of restrictive measures focus on seclusion and

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Are there sex differences in the etiology of youth antisocial behavior? – 2018

Sex differences in the etiology of youth antisocial behavior are an intuitively appealing hypothesis given the consistently higher prevalence of antisocial behavior in boys versus girls. Although a few early studies supported this possibility, reporting stronger genetic influences in females and stronger environmental influences in males, subsequent meta-analyses found that

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Assessments often miss mental health issues for youth on probation – 2018

An assessment tool used by many jurisdictions within the juvenile justice system that is intended to help recognize the effects of adversity and trauma in children’s lives is not the best means of evaluating mental health problems faced by at-risk youth, according to new study by a University at Buffalo

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Association of Cumulative Childhood Adversity and Adolescent Violent Offending With Suicide in Early Adulthood – 2018

Key Points Question Does adolescent violent offending mediate the association between childhood adversity and early adulthood suicide? Findings In this population-based cohort study of 476 103 young adults, individuals with a history of childhood adversity who were convicted of violent offending had an 8-fold higher risk of suicide compared with those

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Bridging the gap between research and frontline youth justice practice – 2018

Although the Risk, Need, Responsivity model of rehabilitation is rooted in a substantial body of research evidence, several studies of the model’s efficacy in youth and adult justice settings within England and Wales have revealed modest outcomes. In this article, we contend that the findings do not necessarily reflect deficits

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Building Integrated Youth Forensic Services – The Journey – 2015-11-17

The Youth Forensic Service is a new provincial ministry initiative, intended to provide alternate care pathways for youth with mental health disorders who find themselves in conflict with the law. By way of forensic assessments, our service’s primary goal is to inform the courts about the influence of mental illness upon a

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Care Pathways Before First Diagnosis of a Psychotic Disorder in Adolescents and Young Adults – 2018

Objective: The authors sought to describe patterns of health care use prior to first diagnosis of a psychotic disorder in a population-based sample. Method: Electronic health records and insurance claims from five large integrated health systems were used to identify 624 patients 15–29 years old who received a first diagnosis

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Childhood Trauma and Psychopathic Features Among Juvenile Offenders – 2018

Despite growing interest in psychopathic personality features in juvenile offenders, few studies have examined the relationship between childhood trauma and psychopathy. The present study utilized two datasets: 253 adolescents in a residential facility for juvenile offenders in Pennsylvania and 723 institutionalized delinquents in Missouri. Zero-order correlations and linear regression techniques

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Completion and Recidivism Rates of High-Risk Youth on Probation: Do Home Visits Make a Difference? – 2018

Probation supervision with and without home visits is an underresearched area for adjudicated higher risk youth. This study compared 287 juvenile probationers receiving police/probation home visits with similar youth (n = 437) who were supervised on regular probation without home visits. Youth performance was measured during supervision and up to

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Desistance Approaches in Youth Justice – The Next Passing Fad or a Sea-Change for the Positive? – 2017-12-21

Youth justice in England and Wales has followed a risk-orientated model for almost two decades, requiring interventions with young people to mitigate assessed risk factors for offending. The desistance revolution evident in much of the adult system and research has been slow to influence change. The Youth Justice Board recently

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Desistance Approaches in Youth Justice – The Next Passing Fad or a Sea-Change for the Positive? – 2018

Youth justice in England and Wales has followed a risk-orientated model for almost two decades, requiring interventions with young people to mitigate assessed risk factors for offending. The desistance revolution evident in much of the adult system and research has been slow to influence change. The Youth Justice Board recently

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Do Extremely Violent Juveniles Respond Differently to Treatment? – 2016

This study increases knowledge on effectiveness of treatment for extremely violent (EV) youth by investigating their response to multisystemic therapy (MST). Using data of a randomized controlled trial on effectiveness of MST, we investigated differences in treatment response between EV youth and not extremely violent (NEV) youth. Pre- to post-treatment

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Does Juvenile Detention Impact Health? 2018

Youth involved in the juvenile justice system represent a medically underserved population. Recidivist youth have poorer health outcomes compared to youth detained for the first time. This study determined differences in immunization history, substance use, mental health symptoms, and sexual behavior between recidivist youth and first-time detainees following improvements in

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Does the Effect of Self-Regulation on Adolescent Recidivism Vary by Youths’ Attitudes? – 2017-11

Youth with poor self-regulation or criminal attitudes are at risk for recidivism. Researchers have yet to examine how self-regulation and criminal attitudes intermix to influence recidivism. The present study employed a large sample of 26,947 youth in the Florida Juvenile Justice System to examine the effect of criminal attitudes on

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Evaluating the utility of ‘strength’ items when assessing the risk of young offenders – 2018-01-15

There is emerging recognition that positive or pro-social characteristics may lessen criminal propensity. There are now several adult and youth forensic instruments that include protective or strength components. Yet evidence supporting the protective capacities of these instruments with youth offending populations is still developing. This study aimed to identity the

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Evaluating the Violence Prevention Program: group and individual changes in aggression, anger, self-control, and empathy – 2017-10

While youth violence reduction program is a necessity to prevent long-term criminal and violent offending, its effectiveness in youth violent offenders is not well researched. This study investigated the effectiveness of the Violence Prevention Program (VPP) in addressing the aggression, anger, self-control, and empathy of youth violent offenders. One hundred

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