“Just be a light”: Experiences of peers working on acute inpatient psychiatric units – 2017

Objective: The study aimed to clarify the potential role and impact of behavioral health peer support providers on community hospital acute inpatient psychiatric units. Method: Qualitative interviews were conducted to examine perspectives of peer support providers (peers) and individuals who initially received peer services (recipients) during an inpatient stay on

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A Survey of Hospital Ethics Structures in Ontario

In response to the growing recognition of the prevalence of ethical issues in clinical care, hospitals in Canada began forming ethics committees in the 1980s. Studies showed significant growth in the prevalence of ethics committees over the ensuing decade. Although the limited studies available suggest that ethics committees have become

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Acute Care Use for Ambulatory Care–Sensitive Conditions in High-Cost Users of Medical Care with Mental Illness and Addictions – 2018-01-18

Objective: The role of mental illness and addiction in acute care use for chronic medical conditions that are sensitive to ambulatory care management requires focussed attention. This study examines how mental illness or addiction affects risk for repeat hospitalization and/or emergency department use for ambulatory care–sensitive conditions (ACSCs) among high-cost

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Adverse events occurring on mental health units – 2018-01

Objective While the study of suicide on mental health units has a long history, the study of patient safety more generally is relatively new. Our objective was to determine the type and relative frequency of adverse events occurring on Veterans Health Administration (VHA) mental health units; the primary root causes

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Anger and aggression treatments: a review of meta-analyses – 2018-02

Highlights • There is considerable variability in the effectiveness of anger treatments. • Cognitive-behavioral interventions are the most commonly studied treatment of anger. • Court-mandated anger management classes are underrepresented in the literature. • Behavioral rehearsal may be more effective than therapy targeting cognitive changes. • Future research will benefit from a

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Association of Childhood Blood Lead Levels With Criminal Offending – 2017-12-26

Key Points Question Is childhood lead exposure associated with criminal offending in a setting where the degree of lead exposure was not confounded by socioeconomic status? Findings In this cohort study of 553 New Zealanders observed for 38 years, lead exposure in childhood was weakly associated with official criminal conviction

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Empathic processes during nurse–consumer conflict situations in psychiatric inpatient units: A qualitative study – 2016-12

Empathy is a central component of nurse–consumer relationships. In the present study, we investigated how empathy is developed and maintained when there is conflict between nurses and consumers, and the ways in which empathy can be used to achieve positive outcomes. Through semistructured interviews, mental health nurses (n = 13)

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Emptying the ‘New Asylums’: A Beds Capacity Model to Reduce Mental Illness Behind Bars – 2017-01

In 2016, an estimated 90,000 US jail inmates were pretrial defendants with serious mental illness who had been found incompetent to stand trial (IST). IST services most commonly take place in state hospitals. Most state hospitals maintain waitlists of IST inmates because they do not have enough beds to meet

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Lived experience of working with female patients in a high-secure mental health setting – 2016-12

Women’s secure hospitals are often considered to be stressful and demanding places to work, with these environments characterized as challenging and violent. However, the staff experience of working in this environment is not well represented in the literature. The present study is the first to examine the ‘lived experience’ of

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Mechanical restraint and characteristics of patient, staff and shifts in a psychiatric ward – 2017-10-26

Background: The use of coercion is a balance between depriving the patients’ autonomy and dignity and preventing endangerment of the body or health of self or others. It is of importance to obtain more knowledge about mechanisms leading to mechanical restraint in the attempt of reducing it. Objective: To analyse

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Mental health inpatients’ and staff members’ suggestions for reducing physical restraint: A qualitative study – 2018-01-11

Introduction Physical restraint has negative consequences for all involved and international calls for its reduction have emerged. Some restraint reduction interventions have been developed, but limited qualitative research explores suggestions on how to reduce physical restraint (and feasibility issues with implementation) from those directly involved. Aim To explore mental health

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Nurses’ attitudes towards the use of PRN psychotropic medications in acute and forensic mental health settings – 2017-03

Many countries now have national mental health policies and guidelines to decrease or eliminate the use of seclusion and restraint yet the use of Pro Re Nata (PRN) medications has received less practice evaluation. This research aimed to identify mental health nurses’ attitudes towards the use of PRN medications with

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Safety of service users with severe mental illness receiving inpatient care on medical and surgical wards: A systematic review – 2018-01

This review aimed to synthesize the evidence on the likelihood of harm and mortality on medical and surgical inpatient wards for people with severe mental illness (SMI). From 937 results identified through database searching, and a further 10 papers identified through citation searching and hand searching, 11 papers met the

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Self-harm in the criminal justice system: a public health opportunity – 2018-01

Self-harm is a global public health problem associated with increased morbidity, suicide risk, and premature mortality. The behaviour is more prevalent in marginalised groups, including people in prison. The burden of self-harm and suicide in prison is considerable; a study from the UK estimated that the annual prevalence of self-harm

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Strategies to Implement Effective Police-ED Protocols

Police officers, by virtue of their role as emergency responders, are often the first to arrive on the scene of a mental health crisis, and they often accompany individuals to the emergency room. Police officers and emergency department (ED) staff can offer unique insight about how to make the ED

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The aggressive brain: insights from neuroscience – 2018-02

Highlights • Virtually all animal species engage in aggressive behavior. • Brain mechanisms for aggression are very similar across species. • Aggression may be an emergent property of a ‘social behavior network.’ • The neurotransmitter serotonin is important for regulating reactive aggression. • Modern human aggression appears detached from these

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The HARM (Hamilton Anatomy of Risk Management) Tool: Implications for Implementation

This webinar explores risk management as it relates to the specific implementation of the Hamilton Anatomy of Risk Management (HARM) Tool. Risk factors for violence vary from inpatient hospital settings to community settings and this webinar also explores implementation of the HARM tool in both settings. Learn from experts about

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Trauma and Violent Offending – Understanding Gang Violence Through the Lens of an Ex-Gang Member – 2015-11-17

The aim of this article is to examine how violent traumatic exposure over the life course can lead to future gang membership, violent offending and subsequent contact with the law. Drawing on a case study approach and a first person narrative our research explores the interpersonal nature of violent offending including the psychological

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Violence in mental health settings: A systematic review – 2017-12

The introduction of smoke-free policies is increasingly common in mental health settings, to improve health. However, a barrier to implementing smoke-free polices is staff concern that violence will increase. We conducted a systematic review comparing the rates of violence before and after the introduction of smoke-free policies in mental health

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