“That’s Just the Tip of It Because It Goes Deeper Than That”: A Qualitative Exploration Into the Role of Mental Illness in Offending Onset and Subsequent Offending Behavior – 2018

There continues to be considerable debate regarding the most effective ways to reduce the number of mentally ill offenders in the adult criminal justice system. What is often missing from this national discussion is an examination of the factors associated with their initial involvement in illegal activities. This qualitative study

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An Examination of Parental and Peer Influence on Substance Use and Criminal Offending During the Transition From Adolescence to Adulthood – 2018

Although peer behavior and parent–child conflict have been associated with adolescent and young adults’ behavior, prior studies have not adequately controlled for selection effects and other confounders, or examined whether associations change across the transition to adulthood or by race. Using annual data from men followed from age 17 to

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Assessing change in dynamic risk factors in forensic psychiatric inpatients: relationship with psychopathy and recidivism – 2017-10

This study explored change in dynamic risk for violence using the Clinical and Risk Management subscales of the Historical Clinical and Risk Management-20 version 3 (HCR-20 v3) and sought to determine whether change was associated with violent recidivism. The association between the magnitude of change and psychopathy was also assessed.

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Association of Childhood Blood Lead Levels With Criminal Offending – 2017-12-26

Key Points Question Is childhood lead exposure associated with criminal offending in a setting where the degree of lead exposure was not confounded by socioeconomic status? Findings In this cohort study of 553 New Zealanders observed for 38 years, lead exposure in childhood was weakly associated with official criminal conviction

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Association of Childhood Blood Lead Levels With Criminal Offending – 2018-02

Key Points Question Is childhood lead exposure associated with criminal offending in a setting where the degree of lead exposure was not confounded by socioeconomic status? Findings In this cohort study of 553 New Zealanders observed for 38 years, lead exposure in childhood was weakly associated with official criminal conviction

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Associations between posttraumatic stress and legal charges among substance using veterans – 2018

Substance misuse is prevalent among veterans entering the criminal justice system, and is related to recidivism. Research demonstrates that trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, which commonly co-occur with substance misuse, also increase the risk of legal involvement and recidivism. However, it is unclear whether the associations between trauma,

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Australian prison vocational education and training and returns to custody among male and female ex-prisoners: A cross-jurisdictional study – 2018

The current study examined the impact of vocational education and training in the custody setting on returns to custody among Australian adult prisoners from selected jurisdictions. Vocational education and training, education, and behavioural change programme participation in custody and demographic and risk assessment data were provided by correctional services in

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Behavioral Addictions and Criminal Responsibility – 2017-12

Certain behavioral addictions pose difficult and unresolved problems for the criminal justice system. These disorders are characterized by strong desire states and may be associated with illegal behaviors that are committed to support the addiction. In this article, we begin with a general account of criminal responsibility and provide the

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Broken Hearts and Battered Lives: Adverse and Abusive Life Histories and Externalized Responses to Anger as Pathways to Illicit Drug Use Among Incarcerated Women [2018]

Most incarcerated women suffer from adverse and abusive life histories, including adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), such as sexual, physical, emotional abuse, and neglect, and intimate partner violence (IPV). In addition, many have difficulties regulating their anger expression and most participate in illicit drug use. Although many have offered explanations for

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Childhood Victimization, Recent Injustice, Anger, and Forgiveness in a Sample of Imprisoned Male Offenders [2018]

The links between childhood victimization, subsequent emotional dysregulation, and insufficient coping skills have been repeatedly documented in the scientific literature. However, there is a gap in the literature regarding the role of forgiveness as a coping strategy and relationships between offense-specific hurt, chronic anger, and early victimization. The goals of

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Clinical, Social, and Neuropsychological Dimensions of the Intersection of Addiction and Criminality [2018]

To examine the social cognitive processes underlying the relationship of addiction and criminality, we administered the Addiction Severity Index-CF (ASI-CF) and the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to 35 participants (11 women) who had been released recently from jail or prison. ASI-CF revealed highest lifetime drug use for alcohol, followed by

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Comparing the criminal careers and childhood risk factors of persistent, chronic, and persistent–chronic offenders – 2018

There have been few efforts to conceptually and empirically distinguish persistent and chronic offenders, despite the prominence of these concepts in the criminological literature. Research has not yet examined if different childhood risk factors are associated with offenders who have the longest criminal careers (persistent offenders), commit the most offences

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Completion and Recidivism Rates of High-Risk Youth on Probation: Do Home Visits Make a Difference? – 2018

Probation supervision with and without home visits is an underresearched area for adjudicated higher risk youth. This study compared 287 juvenile probationers receiving police/probation home visits with similar youth (n = 437) who were supervised on regular probation without home visits. Youth performance was measured during supervision and up to

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Criminal history and social disadvantage as predictors of the severity of violent offending – 2018

Lethal violence is often seen as the tip of the iceberg and homicide perpetrators are seen as manifesting the most extreme number of various risk factors. This article explores whether that is the case. Using a unique data set combining data from several administrative registers with a nationally representative sample

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Criminal Minds: Narcissism Predicts Offending Behavior in a Non-Forensic Sample

Narcissism has been associated with various offending behaviors; however, the majority of research has concentrated on men using forensic samples. This study (n = 632) investigated narcissism and how it relates to offending behaviors, including both sexes. Significant differences were found when comparing the relationship between narcissism and offending behavior,

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Despair Will Hold You Prisoner, Hope Will Set You Free: Hope and Meaning Among Released Prisoners – 2018

The current study examines the self-image and worldviews of 10 released prisoners in Israel through narrative analysis of their life stories, including past and present periods in their lives and future aspirations. The findings reveal a chaotic past perceived as lacking meaning, hope, and clear boundaries while being devoid of

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Developmental characteristics of firesetters: Are recidivist offenders distinctive? [2018]

Introduction This study examined the prevalence of developmental disadvantage and the extent that disadvantage could differentiate between recidivist and one‐time firesetters in an Australian sample of firesetting offenders. Methods Variables pertaining to developmental experiences were collected from file data held by the Western Australian Department of Corrective Services pertaining to

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Differences in Neuropsychological Functioning Between Homicidal and Nonviolent Schizophrenia Samples – 2018

Few studies have compared performance on neurocognitive measures between violent and nonviolent schizophrenia samples. A better understanding of neurocognitive dysfunction in violent individuals with schizophrenia could increase the efficacy of violence reduction strategies and aid in risk assessment and adjudication processes. This study aimed to compare neuropsychological performance between 25

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Disentangling the link between posttraumatic stress disorder and violent behavior: Findings from a nationally representative sample – 2018

Objective: Although research using combat veteran samples has demonstrated an association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and violence toward others, there has been relatively little research examining this relationship among individuals with no combat history. Method: Data representative of the United States population collected from the two wave National Epidemiologic

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Do Demographic Factors Moderate How Well Criminal Thinking Predicts Recidivism? 2018

Is the relationship between criminal thinking and recidivism the same for criminal justice–involved individuals from varying demographic backgrounds? Relying on two independent samples of offenders and two measures of criminal thinking, the current studies examined whether four demographic factors—gender, race, age, and education—moderated the relationship between criminal thinking and recidivism.

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Do risk assessment tools help manage and reduce risk of violence and reoffending? A systematic review – 2018

Although it is widely believed that risk assessment tools can help manage risk of violence and offending, it is unclear what evidence exists to support this view. As such, we conducted a systematic review and narrative synthesis. To identify studies, we searched 13 databases, reviewed reference lists, and contacted experts.

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Does Reducing Case Processing Time Reduce Recidivism? A Study of the Early Case Resolution Court [2018]

Case processing times throughout the United States exceed national standards created by multiple agencies. To combat this, multiple expedited case processing courts have been developed across the nation; however, research regarding these courts has failed to consider recidivism outcomes among participants. We examined the outcomes of a specialized court in

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Drawing the Line: Empirical Recidivism Results From a Natural Experiment Raising the Age of Criminal Responsibility – 2018

Every state maintains some mechanism by which youths can be tried as adults in criminal courts. While scholars have long debated the inherent benefits or detriments of prosecuting youths as adults, empirical studies of actual outcomes have provided mixed findings and have been limited by problems of selection bias and

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Drug Use and Violence Among Adolescents: The Mediation Effect of Attitudes Supporting Violence – 2018

The aim of this article is to study the impact of violent attitudes on the drug use/violent delinquency relationship. A total of 1,420 adolescents from the province of Rimini (Italy) completed a questionnaire concerning drug use, violent behaviors, and attitudes toward violence. In general, the results seem to confirm that

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Effectiveness of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy on Reduction of Recidivism Among Recently Incarcerated Homeless Women: A Pilot Study [2018]

The purpose of this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to compare the 6-month outcomes of a Dialectical Behavioral Therapy–Corrections Modified (DBT-CM) program versus a Health Promotion (HP) program on mitigating recidivism among 130 female parolees/probationers between baseline and 6-month follow-up. The effect of DBT-CM on reducing recidivism was greater

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