A review of measures used in the screening, assessment and diagnosis of dementia in people with an intellectual disability – 2018

Background The increasing number of individuals with an intellectual disability who are at risk of developing dementia highlights the need to use measures with strong psychometric properties as part of the screening, assessment and diagnostic process. Method Searches were made of clinical and good practice guidelines and English language journal

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Applying Restrictive Measures in the Care of Adolescents With Mild Intellectual Disabilities: Attitudes of Support Staff and Policy Implications – 2018

Research suggests that restrictive measures are widely used on adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities. In the Netherlands, restrictive measures are defined as all measures that limit the freedom of a person. In most countries, legislation and policies that seek to reduce the use of restrictive measures focus on seclusion and

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Associations Between Mental Health Problems and Challenging Behavior in Adults With Intellectual Disabilities: A Test of the Behavioral Equivalents Hypothesis – 2018

Introduction: Current research findings in the field of intellectual disabilities (ID) regarding the relationship between mental health problems and challenging behavior are inconclusive and/or contradictory. The aim of this study was to further investigate the putative association between these two highly prevalent phenomena in people with ID, and specifically to

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Associations Between Mental Health Problems and Challenging Behavior in Adults With Intellectual Disabilities: A Test of the Behavioral Equivalents Hypothesis – 2018-02

Introduction: Current research findings in the field of intellectual disabilities (ID) regarding the relationship between mental health problems and challenging behavior are inconclusive and/or contradictory. The aim of this study was to further investigate the putative association between these two highly prevalent phenomena in people with ID, and specifically to

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Characteristics of Aggressive Behavior in People With Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability and Co-Occurring Psychopathology – 2018

Introduction: People with intellectual disabilities and co-occurring psychopathology have a relatively high likelihood to engage in aggressive behavior. Nevertheless, structured clinical assessment of aggressive behavior, including when and where it occurs, is scarce in this population. Methods: On three wards specializing in the care for people with mild to borderline

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Comparison of Self- and Proxy Report of Mental Health Symptoms in People With Intellectual Disabilities – 2018-02

Mental illness, and its assessment and treatment, is a concern for caregivers and professionals working with people with intellectual disability (ID), as well as a cause of distress and disability for people with ID. Research in this area is hindered by difficulties associated with recognizing symptoms of mental illness and

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Consensus statement of the International Summit on Intellectual Disability and Dementia on valuing the perspectives of persons with intellectual disability – 2018-01-17

The International Summit on Intellectual Disability and Dementia covered a range of issues related to dementia and intellectual disability, including the dearth of personal reflections of persons with intellectual disability affected by dementia. This article reflects on this deficiency and explores some of the personal perspectives gleaned from the literature,

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Developmental Disabilities Awareness in the Justice System Project – 2015-11-16

In its Knowledge Gap Analysis of Individuals with a Developmental Disability and Interactions with the Law, the Inter-ministerial Mental Health & Justice Committee identified a need to build capacity and share knowledge within the justice sector about people with developmental disabilities. This presentation will provide an overview of an ongoing project aimed at

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Developmental Disabilities in the Justice System

The Community Networks of Specialized Care are pleased to have been selected to lead a provincial initiative to raise awareness of developmental disabilities in the criminal justice system. The initiative is in response to a knowledge gap identified by the Inter-Ministerial Mental Health and Justice Committee which is comprised of

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Developmental Disabilities in the Justice System

Developmental Disability Awareness in the Criminal Justice System is a project funded by the Ministry of Community and Social Services. The purpose is to address the knowledge and skills gaps that have been identified by service recipients and service providers regarding developmental disabilities and dual diagnosis within the youth and

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Diagnosing Autism in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Validation of the DiBAS-R in an Independent Sample – 2017

The study assessed the diagnostic validity of the diagnostic behavioral assessment for autism spectrum disorders-revised (DiBAS-R; 19-item screening scale based on ratings by caregivers) in a clinical sample of 381 adults with ID. Analysis revealed a sensitivity of 0.82 and a specificity of 0.67 in the overall sample (70.3% agreement).

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Exploring Differences in Criminogenic Risk Factors and Criminal Behavior Between Young Adult Violent Offenders With and Without Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability – 2016

The relation between mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) and violent offense behavior was studied among a group of former juvenile delinquents currently in a diversion program for persistent young adult violent offenders from Amsterdam (N = 146). Offenders were considered MBID if they had received juvenile probation from the

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Head banging as a form of self-harm among inpatients within forensic mental health and intellectual disability services – 2018-01-11

Introduction: ‘Head banging’ is a common form of self-harm, linked to numerous negative outcomes including significant brain damage. However, little research has investigated head banging behaviour and its correlates in clinical populations. Method: Head banging episodes were identified from the incident records (n = 5417) of two inpatient forensic services

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Health-related quality of life in people with intellectual disability who use long-term antipsychotic drugs for challenging behaviour – 2018

Highlights • We studied health-related quality of life in people who use long-term antipsychotics. • Mental health status was lower compared to the general population. • Emotional wellbeing was influenced by irritability and lethargy. • Physical wellbeing was influenced by parkinsonism and autonomic symptoms. Abstract Background Many people with intellectual disabilities use long-term antipsychotics

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Identification and Analysis of Factors Contributing to the Reduction in Seclusion and Restraint for a Population with Intellectual Disability – 2016

Background A cohort of 11 patients with an intellectual disability and a psychiatric diagnosis present severe behavioural disorders in psychiatric hospital of Quebec in 2009. Control-measure use for this clientele has now been reduced. How do management personnel, families and care teams explain the changes? What clinical interventions did management

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Opening the Doors of Justice – An Attempt to Make True Justice Accessible to People with an Intellectual Disability Who Have Been the Victims of a Crime – 2015-11-17

Mark Pathak pioneered a model of work to enable people with intellectual disabilities engage with the criminal justice system as complainants. The framework provides specialist support to help witnesses prepare for the courtroom experience while helping the court understand in advance the capabilities of the witnesses. Opening the Doors of Justice –

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Outcomes of an inner city forensic intellectual disability service – 2018

Purpose National policy in England is now directed towards keeping patients with intellectual disability (ID) presenting with forensic problems for time limited treatment. The result is that secure hospital services are expected to work much more proactively to discharge patients to community-based services. However, there is little evidence in recent

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Predicting Institutional Aggression in Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities Using the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide – 2016

Background One of the most extensively tested risk assessment instruments in offenders with an intellectual disability (OIDs) is the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG). The purpose of this prospective study was to test the ability of this instrument to predict institutional aggression in OIDs. Method VRAG scores were collected for

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Problem behaviours and psychotropic medication use in intellectual disability: a multinational cross-sectional survey

Background Problem behaviours (PBs) are a common cause for clinician contact in people with disorders of intellectual development and may be a common cause for the prescription of psychotropic medication. We aimed to use a large, multinational sample to define the prevalence of PBs, the associations with psychotropic medication use,

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Restraints in daily care for people with moderate intellectual disabilities – 2016

Background: Self-determination is an important factor in improving the quality of life of people with moderate intellectual disabilities. A focus on self-determination implies that restraints on the freedom of people with intellectual disabilities should be decreased. In addition, according to the Dutch Care and Coercion bill, regular restraints of freedom,

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Severity of cognitive disability and mental health court determinations about fitness to stand trial – 2018

Background Little is known about the socio-demographic, clinical and legal determinants of mental health court decisions of unsoundness of mind and unfitness to stand trial for people with cognitive disability. We aimed to estimate the association between severity of cognitive disability and mental health court determinations of unsoundness or unfitness

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Social cognition in intellectually disabled male criminal offenders: A deficit in affect perception? – 2018

Purpose Although intellectual disability (ID) and criminal offending have long been associated, the nature of this link is obfuscated by reliance on historically unrigorous means of assessing ID and fractionating social cognitive skills. This paper reviews and reports current findings and sets an agenda for future research in social perception,

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The North Community Network of Specialized Care Skills Systems Group – An Adaptation Of DBT for People with Developmental Disabilities Delivered by Videoconference

The NCNSC Skills System Group provides this adaptation of DBT via videoconference to people across northern Ontario who have developmental disabilities *DD (and problems with emotion regulation). It is proving to be effective in helping people with DD reduce challenging behaviour while building capacity across sectors. The North Community Network of Specialized

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The Static-99R predicts sexual and violent recidivism for individuals with low intellectual functioning – 2017

A current debate is whether actuarial risk assessment tools predict sexual recidivism in sexual offenders with intellectual disabilities (SOIDs). Since intellectual functioning exists on a spectrum, the present study examined the predictive validity of the Static-99R across the range of intellectual functioning. The sample was comprised of 454 adult sexual

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Time to stop over-prescribing antipsychotics to adults with developmental disabilities – Toronto Star Opinion – 2017-10-13

In our recent study published in the Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, we report that nearly 40 per cent of adults with developmental disabilities in Ontario were prescribed antipsychotics over a six-year period. Sixty per cent of the individuals prescribed these medications did not have the psychiatric diagnoses for which these

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