“Risk It Out, Risk It Out”: Occupational and Organizational Stresses in Rural Policing – 2018

In rural areas, police experience unique work-related health and safety risks attributable to a multitude of factors, ranging from inaccessible backup to navigating inclement weather alongside geographic obstacles. Although the result of institutional and organizational structures, operational (job content) and organizational (job context) risk must be recontextualized in the rural

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A Co-Responder Model for Policing Mental Health Problems at Crime Hot Spots: Findings from a Pilot Project – 2018

The police often come into contact with people suffering from mental health and substance abuse problems and there is evidence to suggest that these individuals are concentrated in small geographic units. The purpose of the current research is to present a proactive co-responder approach that addresses mental health problems concentrated

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A systematic review of co-responder models of police mental health ‘street’ triage [2018]

Background Police mental health street triage is an increasingly common intervention when dealing with police incidents in which there is a suspected mental health component. We conducted a systematic review of street triage interventions with three aims. First, to identify papers reporting on models of co-response police mental health street

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Creating a Collaborative Approach to Seniors Issues in Rural Communities – 2015-11-18

Many communities are seeing an increase in senior related calls for service. This is true for police, hospitals, community health care providers and families. The issues surrounding seniors are multifaceted. In Durham region, we have recognized that a community partnership approach is fundamental in successfully addressing complex issues. We will discuss advances we

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Crisis intervention team training: when police encounter persons with mental illness [2018]

The Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) model is an established training program used to improve police response to encounters involving persons with mental illness (PwMI). Diversion of PwMI from the criminal justice system to appropriate treatment providers in the community is one of the primary goals of CIT. The present study

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Descriptive Epidemiology for Community-wide Naloxone Administration by Police Officers and Firefighters Responding to Opioid Overdose – 2018

Recently implemented New York State policy allows police and fire to administer intranasal naloxone when responding to opioid overdoses. This work describes the geographic distribution of naloxone administration (NlxnA) by police and fire when responding to opioid overdoses in Erie County, NY, an area of approximately 920,000 people including the

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Development of the Nonverbal Cues of Interpersonal Violence Inventory: Law Enforcement Officers’ Perceptions of Nonverbal Behavior and Violence – 2018-01-20

Across two studies, we investigated nonverbal behaviors perceived to precede imminent interpersonal violence. Study 1 identified the six-factor structure of the Nonverbal Cues of Interpersonal Violence (NCIV) and also examined differences in perceptions of imminent interpersonal violence between law enforcement and laypersons. Study 2 confirmed the six-factor structure of the

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Early diversion and empowerment policing: evaluating an adult female offender triage project – 2018

This paper provides an evaluation of a police pilot early-diversion scheme for adult females who were arrested for low-severity offences using a natural experiment design. The intervention is novel in that it diverts arrestees to a women’s centre for assistance to address their criminogenic needs rather than process them through

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Effectiveness of current policing‐related mental health interventions: A systematic review – 2018

Background There are three commonly used mental health interventions associated with policing: liaison and diversion, street triage and having specialist staff embedded in police contact control rooms. Crisis intervention teams (CITs), already used in the USA, are now attracting wider interest, including in the UK. Investment in these interventions is

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Emergency service experiences of adults with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability – 2018

This study aimed to describe patterns of emergency department use and police interactions, as well as satisfaction with emergency services of 40 adults with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability over 12–18 months. Approximately 42.5% of the sample reported visiting the emergency department and 32.5% reported interactions with police during the

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Evidence for the effectiveness of police-based pre-booking diversion programs in decriminalizing mental illness: A systematic literature review [2018]

Purpose People with mental illnesses are at a significantly greater risk of police arrest than the general population. This pattern of arrests has been associated with a phenomenon referred to as the criminalization of mental illness such that people with mental illnesses are inappropriately diverted to the criminal justice system

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Examining Body‐Worn Camera Integration and Acceptance Among Police Officers, Citizens, and External Stakeholders [2018]

Research Summary We explore integration and acceptance of body‐worn cameras (BWCs) among police, citizens, and stakeholders in one jurisdiction (Tempe, AZ) that adhered to the U.S. Department of Justice’s (U.S. DOJ’s) BWC Implementation Guide. We assess integration and acceptance through (a) officer surveys pre‐ and postdeployment, (b) interviews with citizens

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Exploration of joint working practices on anti-social behaviour between criminal justice, mental health and social care agencies: A qualitative study – 2018

Although the police play an important role for people with mental health problems in the community, little is known about joint working practices between mental health, social care and police services. There is potential for tensions and negative outcomes for people with mental health problems, in particular when the focus

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Exploration of joint working practices on anti‐social behaviour between criminal justice, mental health and social care agencies: A qualitative study – 2018

Although the police play an important role for people with mental health problems in the community, little is known about joint working practices between mental health, social care and police services. There is potential for tensions and negative outcomes for people with mental health problems, in particular when the focus

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Exploring the Potential for Body-Worn Cameras to Reduce Violence in Police–Citizen Encounters – 2018

One of the most compelling perceived benefits of body-worn cameras (BWCs) involves the potential for reductions in citizen complaints and police use of force. A handful of early studies reported significant reductions in both outcomes following BWC adoption, but several recent studies have failed to document such effects. The current

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Is 911 a Safe Option for a Mental Health Crisis? – Psychology Today – 2018-07-12

When I learned how to assess for suicide in graduate school, I was taught to add “go to the nearest ER or call 911” to any safety plan for a client who was not in imminent danger of self-harm but was still struggling. I thought little of it at the

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Is Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) training evidence-based practice? A systematic review [2018]

This study reviews 25 empirical research articles that have examined the impact of Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) training over the past 10 years. Overall, little can be said about the effectiveness of CIT training due to varying outcomes, a reliance on self-report data, lack of comparison or control groups, and

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Keeping It REAL: Assisting Individuals After a Police-Abated Mental Health Crisis [2018]

This article evaluates a community-based, peer support program in which police officers and mental health workers collaboratively address citizens’ mental health needs following encounters with law enforcement. We analyzed data 12, 24, and 36 months after a police-abated mental health crisis for 775 individuals, some of whom were referred to

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Law enforcement officers’ perceptions of and responses to traumatic events: a survey of officers completing Crisis Intervention Team training – 2018

Law enforcement officers work in ever-changing and sometimes stressful environments. However, to date, little research has been conducted on officers’ perceptions of, and responses to, stressful and traumatic events. We surveyed 575 officers in Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) training regarding such perceptions and responses. Results indicate that many officers have

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Medically Clear: The Evidence Supports Police Use of Naloxone – Emergency Medicine News – 2018-03

The man was unresponsive, his breathing shallow. The Marin County, CA, police officer first at the scene located a pulse while the man’s companion reported that he had been using heroin. The officer performed a sternum rub with no response. The man’s eyes were slightly open, though, and he could

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Mental Health Adult Pre-charge Diversion

When a person with mental health issues has committed a minor crime in Durham Region, the Adult Mental Health Pre-charge Diversion Program helps move them away from the justice system and into the healthcare system. This webinar will explain how the program has reduced the number of individuals experiencing mental

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Mental health and policing interventions: implementation and impact – 2018

Purpose Interactions between individuals experiencing mental health (MH) problems and the police are complex and may affect the way in which both parties react to and experience the interactions. The purpose of this paper is to examine three commonly used interventions to improve these interactions. Design/methodology/approach Mixed methods were used

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Mental health and policing interventions: implementation and impact – 2018

Purpose Interactions between individuals experiencing mental health (MH) problems and the police are complex and may affect the way in which both parties react to and experience the interactions. The purpose of this paper is to examine three commonly used interventions to improve these interactions. Design/methodology/approach Mixed methods were used

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Mobile Crisis Intervention Team (MCIT) – Development and Evaluation of Toronto’s Co-Responding Police Mental Health Service Team – 2015-11-17

The Mobile Crisis Intervention Team (MCIT) is a co-responding police-mental health program. This presentation will share the process of coordinating MCIT’s across hospital, LHIN, and justice/healthcare boundaries. The results of a mixed-method outcome evaluation will be presented, focusing on clients’ experiences with both MCIT and police-only response teams. Mobile Crisis Intervention Team

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Mobile Crisis Rapid Response Team (Hamilton)

This presentation will focus on the development and outcomes of a new first responder model that pairs police officers and mental health crisis workers for 911 response in Hamilton, ON. A description of how the MCRRT evolved from a strong historical partnership between Hamilton Police Services (HPS) and St. Joseph’s

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