‘It’s not getting them the support they need’: Exploratory research of police officers’ experiences of community mental health [2018]

Police officers are first responders in a role which not only encompasses crime, but also increasing welfare issues. Issues have been highlighted with officers ‘detaining’ those with mental health difficulties and the impact that this process can have upon all involved. However, there appears to be a shift towards a

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“Risk It Out, Risk It Out”: Occupational and Organizational Stresses in Rural Policing – 2018

In rural areas, police experience unique work-related health and safety risks attributable to a multitude of factors, ranging from inaccessible backup to navigating inclement weather alongside geographic obstacles. Although the result of institutional and organizational structures, operational (job content) and organizational (job context) risk must be recontextualized in the rural

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A Co-Responder Model for Policing Mental Health Problems at Crime Hot Spots: Findings from a Pilot Project – 2018

The police often come into contact with people suffering from mental health and substance abuse problems and there is evidence to suggest that these individuals are concentrated in small geographic units. The purpose of the current research is to present a proactive co-responder approach that addresses mental health problems concentrated

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A pilot study exploring mental health consumers’ experiences with the police [2018]

Police encounters with people experiencing mental illness are both common and problematic. While there is an international body of literature on police officers’ perceptions of mental-health-related incidents, few studies have sought to understand these encounters from the perspectives of people experiencing mental illness. This pilot study recruited 26 people through

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A Randomized Control Trial of a Targeted High-Risk Offender Program Across Three Jurisdictions [2018]

This study reviews findings from Project Regional Analytics for the Safety of Our Residents, a modified focused deterrence program operated across three jurisdictions in Massachusetts. Unlike most other evaluations of targeted high-risk offender programs, the impact on individual-level offending is examined. Data from records management systems in three police agencies

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A systematic review of co-responder models of police mental health ‘street’ triage [2018]

Background Police mental health street triage is an increasingly common intervention when dealing with police incidents in which there is a suspected mental health component. We conducted a systematic review of street triage interventions with three aims. First, to identify papers reporting on models of co-response police mental health street

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Barriers and facilitators to implementing an urban co-responding police-mental health team [2018]

Background In an effort to reduce the increasing number of persons with mental illness (PMI) experiencing incarceration, co-responding police-mental health teams are being utilized as a way to divert PMI from the criminal justice system. Co-response teams are typically an inter-agency collaboration between police and mental health professionals, and in

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Change or be changed: Diagnosing the readiness to change in the Canadian police sector [2017]

Concerns have emerged over the readiness of police agencies to adapt to change. To better understand why this might be the case, we used Lewin’s theory of change and an emic methodology to investigate the internal and external forces for and against change within this sector. Using a qualitative methodology

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Creating a Collaborative Approach to Seniors Issues in Rural Communities – 2015-11-18

Many communities are seeing an increase in senior related calls for service. This is true for police, hospitals, community health care providers and families. The issues surrounding seniors are multifaceted. In Durham region, we have recognized that a community partnership approach is fundamental in successfully addressing complex issues. We will discuss advances we

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Crisis intervention team training: when police encounter persons with mental illness [2018]

The Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) model is an established training program used to improve police response to encounters involving persons with mental illness (PwMI). Diversion of PwMI from the criminal justice system to appropriate treatment providers in the community is one of the primary goals of CIT. The present study

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Descriptive Epidemiology for Community-wide Naloxone Administration by Police Officers and Firefighters Responding to Opioid Overdose – 2018

Recently implemented New York State policy allows police and fire to administer intranasal naloxone when responding to opioid overdoses. This work describes the geographic distribution of naloxone administration (NlxnA) by police and fire when responding to opioid overdoses in Erie County, NY, an area of approximately 920,000 people including the

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Development of the Nonverbal Cues of Interpersonal Violence Inventory: Law Enforcement Officers’ Perceptions of Nonverbal Behavior and Violence – 2018-01-20

Across two studies, we investigated nonverbal behaviors perceived to precede imminent interpersonal violence. Study 1 identified the six-factor structure of the Nonverbal Cues of Interpersonal Violence (NCIV) and also examined differences in perceptions of imminent interpersonal violence between law enforcement and laypersons. Study 2 confirmed the six-factor structure of the

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Development of the Nonverbal Cues of Interpersonal Violence Inventory: Law Enforcement Officers’ Perceptions of Nonverbal Behavior and Violence [2018]

Across two studies, we investigated nonverbal behaviors perceived to precede imminent interpersonal violence. Study 1 identified the six-factor structure of the Nonverbal Cues of Interpersonal Violence (NCIV) and also examined differences in perceptions of imminent interpersonal violence between law enforcement and laypersons. Study 2 confirmed the six-factor structure of the

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Do police–mental health co-responder programmes reduce emergency department presentations or simply delay the inevitable? [2018]

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes for people following intervention by a police–mental health co-responder team. Method: Individuals seen by the co-responder team were followed for 2 weeks to monitor subsequent emergency department presentations and inpatient admissions. Results: Of the 122 people who had direct contact

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Early diversion and empowerment policing: evaluating an adult female offender triage project – 2018

This paper provides an evaluation of a police pilot early-diversion scheme for adult females who were arrested for low-severity offences using a natural experiment design. The intervention is novel in that it diverts arrestees to a women’s centre for assistance to address their criminogenic needs rather than process them through

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Effectiveness of current policing‐related mental health interventions: A systematic review – 2018

Background There are three commonly used mental health interventions associated with policing: liaison and diversion, street triage and having specialist staff embedded in police contact control rooms. Crisis intervention teams (CITs), already used in the USA, are now attracting wider interest, including in the UK. Investment in these interventions is

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Emergency service experiences of adults with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability – 2018

This study aimed to describe patterns of emergency department use and police interactions, as well as satisfaction with emergency services of 40 adults with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability over 12–18 months. Approximately 42.5% of the sample reported visiting the emergency department and 32.5% reported interactions with police during the

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Evidence for the effectiveness of police-based pre-booking diversion programs in decriminalizing mental illness: A systematic literature review [2018]

Purpose People with mental illnesses are at a significantly greater risk of police arrest than the general population. This pattern of arrests has been associated with a phenomenon referred to as the criminalization of mental illness such that people with mental illnesses are inappropriately diverted to the criminal justice system

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Examining Body‐Worn Camera Integration and Acceptance Among Police Officers, Citizens, and External Stakeholders [2018]

Research Summary We explore integration and acceptance of body‐worn cameras (BWCs) among police, citizens, and stakeholders in one jurisdiction (Tempe, AZ) that adhered to the U.S. Department of Justice’s (U.S. DOJ’s) BWC Implementation Guide. We assess integration and acceptance through (a) officer surveys pre‐ and postdeployment, (b) interviews with citizens

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Exploration of joint working practices on anti-social behaviour between criminal justice, mental health and social care agencies: A qualitative study – 2018

Although the police play an important role for people with mental health problems in the community, little is known about joint working practices between mental health, social care and police services. There is potential for tensions and negative outcomes for people with mental health problems, in particular when the focus

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Exploration of joint working practices on anti‐social behaviour between criminal justice, mental health and social care agencies: A qualitative study – 2018

Although the police play an important role for people with mental health problems in the community, little is known about joint working practices between mental health, social care and police services. There is potential for tensions and negative outcomes for people with mental health problems, in particular when the focus

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Exploring the Potential for Body-Worn Cameras to Reduce Violence in Police–Citizen Encounters – 2018

One of the most compelling perceived benefits of body-worn cameras (BWCs) involves the potential for reductions in citizen complaints and police use of force. A handful of early studies reported significant reductions in both outcomes following BWC adoption, but several recent studies have failed to document such effects. The current

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Female Offenders’ Perceptions of Police Procedural Justice and Their Obligation to Obey the Law [2017]

Although the process-based model of criminal justice has received substantial empirical attention, few previous studies have examined individuals embedded in a criminal lifestyle and at the most risk for future offending, and few have focused exclusively on female offenders. Employing structural equation modeling, the present study tests the process-based model

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Integrating De-escalation Techniques into Policing [2017-07-20]

When many police officers hear the term “de-escalation techniques” they often initially react with skepticism or even aversion. In recent years, policing has been inundated with public criticism, political posturing, and “expert” dissection of police tactics. While some of the commentary has been less than useful, there have been certain

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Interagency collaboration models for people with mental ill health in contact with the police: a systematic scoping review [2017]

Objective To identify existing evidence on interagency collaboration between law enforcement, emergency services, statutory services and third sector agencies regarding people with mental ill health. Design Systematic scoping review. Scoping reviews map particular research areas to identify research gaps. Data sources and eligibility ASSIA, CENTRAL, the Cochrane Library databases, Criminal

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