A comprehensive examination of the psychometric properties of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised in a Canadian multisite sample of indigenous and non-indigenous offenders – 2018

The present study examined the psychometric properties of Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003) scores in a multisite sample of 1,163 federally incarcerated Canadian indigenous and non-indigenous offenders from the Prairie Region of the Correctional Service of Canada. The research occurred against the backdrop of the Ewert v. Canada (2015)

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A data science approach to predicting patient aggressive events in a psychiatric hospital [2018]

Highlights• Machine learning was used to optimize modeling of patient aggressive events in a large set of electronic health records in a safety net psychiatric facility. • The best-performing algorithm (penalized generalized linear modeling) achieved an area under the curve = 0.7801. • The strongest predictors of patient aggressive events were homelessness, having witnessed

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A Prospective Examination of the Predictive Validity of Five Structured Instruments for Inpatient Violence in a Secure Forensic Hospital – 2018

This prospective study investigated the predictive validity of five structured risk/forensic instruments for inpatient violence risk in a secure forensic hospital. Episodes of inpatient violence and the following instruments were each coded from hospital files: Historical Clinical Risk Management 20 – Version 3 (HCR-20V3), Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R), Short-Term Assessment

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A review of factors associated with severe violence in schizophrenia [2018]

Background: There is a modest but consistent association between violence and schizophrenia. The consequences of serious violence could be catastrophic for the victims, as well as the patients themselves and the community. Any knowledge that would help to prevent acts of serious violence would be of considerable value for the

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A systematic PRISMA review of individuals with autism spectrum disorder in secure psychiatric care: prevalence, treatment, risk assessment and other clinical considerations – 2018

Purpose Patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) present with specific assessment, specific difficulties, needs and therapeutic issues and therefore are a challenging group for forensic services. Given the challenge that individuals with ASD present to forensic services, the suggested increase in the number of this group within this setting and

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An Independent Investigation Into the Psychometric Properties of the Adult Scale of Hostility and Aggression (A-SHARP) [2017]

Background: The Adult Scale of Hostility and Aggression (A-SHARP) rating scale assesses the frequency/severity (problem scale) and the reactive-proactive motivation (provocation scale) of aggressive behaviors in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Items are assigned to five subscales (Verbal Aggression, Physical Aggression, Hostile Affect, Covert Aggression, and Bullying). Although psychometric properties

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An update and expansion on the role of the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide and Historical Clinical Risk Management‐20 in United States case law [2018]

An individual’s risk for future violent behavior may be considered in various legal contexts, including civil commitment, criminal sentencing, or suitability for parole. Among the assessment tools forensic evaluators use to assess violence risk are the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG; Quinsey, Harris, Rice, & Cormier, 1998) and the Historical

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Assessing change in dynamic risk factors in forensic psychiatric inpatients: relationship with psychopathy and recidivism – 2017-10

This study explored change in dynamic risk for violence using the Clinical and Risk Management subscales of the Historical Clinical and Risk Management-20 version 3 (HCR-20 v3) and sought to determine whether change was associated with violent recidivism. The association between the magnitude of change and psychopathy was also assessed.

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Assessing Dynamic Violence Risk in a High-Risk Treated Sample of Violent Offenders [2018]

The present study featured an investigation of the predictive properties of risk and change scores of two violence risk assessment and treatment planning tools—the Violence Risk Scale (VRS) and the Historical, Clinical, Risk–20, Version 2 (HCR-20)—in sample of 178 treated adult male violent offenders who attended a high-intensity violence reduction

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Assessing Intervention Needs of Juvenile Probationers: An Application of Latent Profile Analysis to a Risk–Need–Responsivity Assessment Model [2018]

The assessment of criminogenic risk is critical in the prediction of future delinquency and the ability to provide appropriate services and interventions for youth offenders. The goal of this study was to determine whether using latent profile analysis (LPA) produced better risk classification profiles than traditional linear methods. Archival data

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Assessment of In-Person and Cyber Aggression and Victimization, Substance Use, and Delinquent Behavior During Early Adolescence [2018]

This study evaluated the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale–Adolescent Report (PBFS-AR), a measure designed to assess adolescents’ frequency of victimization, aggression, substance use, and delinquent behavior. Participants were 1,263 students (50% female; 78% African American, 18% Latino) from three urban middle schools in the United States. Confirmatory factor analyses of competing

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Beyond Recidivism: Exploring the Predictive Validity of a Correctional Risk Assessment Tool on Offender Victimization [2017]

A vast body of past research on correctional risk assessment instruments supports their validity in predicting measures of recidivism across diverse offender population samples. Despite similarities in the risk factors for victimization and offending, little is known about whether the generalizability of these actuarial tools can be extended beyond recidivism

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Broken Legs, Clinical Overrides, and Recidivism Risk: An Analysis of Decisions to Adjust Risk Levels With the LS/CMI [2017]

Risk assessment practices have evolved considerably over the past three decades. Structured assessments of recidivism risk allow for the proper identification of criminogenic needs, which in turn, allow decision makers to make informed recommendations regarding criminal justice interventions and measures. Although actuarial assessments are common practice, situations exist where evaluators

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Can we keep it simple? Using the BARR-2002R with a community-based sex offender sample – 2017

The Brief Assessment of Recidivism Risk (BARR-2002R) comprises of six items from the Static-2002R and has been designed for predicting general and violent recidivism among sexual offenders. The present study investigates the ability of the BARR-2002R, Static-2002R, Static-99R, and SORAG to predict general, violent, and sexual recidivism in a sample

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Constituting the ‘sexually violent predator’: Law, forensic psychology, and the adjudication of risk – 2018

Considerable socio-legal scholarship demonstrates law’s constitutive power, and much criminological research has considered the effects of actuarial risk assessment. However, these strands have rarely been brought together to consider how legal risk assessment practices constitute sexual subjects. This article argues that law and forensic psychology co-constitute the category of the

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Decision-Making Behaviour under the Mental Health Act 1983 and Its Impact on Mental Health Tribunals: An English Perspective [2018]

In England and Wales, the Mental Health Act 1983 (MHA 1983) provides the legal framework which governs decisions made concerning the care and treatment of those suffering from mental disorders, where they may pose a risk to themselves or others. The perspective of the patient and the care provider may

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Development of the Nonverbal Cues of Interpersonal Violence Inventory: Law Enforcement Officers’ Perceptions of Nonverbal Behavior and Violence – 2018-01-20

Across two studies, we investigated nonverbal behaviors perceived to precede imminent interpersonal violence. Study 1 identified the six-factor structure of the Nonverbal Cues of Interpersonal Violence (NCIV) and also examined differences in perceptions of imminent interpersonal violence between law enforcement and laypersons. Study 2 confirmed the six-factor structure of the

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Differences between staff groups in perception of risk assessment and risk management of inappropriate sexual behaviour in patients with traumatic brain injury [2018]

This research explored staff perceptions of risk assessment and management of inappropriate sexual behaviour (ISB) displayed in patients following a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). The primary focus was to determine differences in perceptions between qualified (N = 40) and direct care staff (N = 47). Vignettes depicting ISB displayed by a male following a

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Discrimination and Calibration Properties of the Level of Service Inventory–Ontario Revision in a Correctional Mental Health Sample

We examined the predictive properties of the Level of Service Inventory–Ontario Revision (LSI-OR) in a sample of 604 provincially incarcerated men with mental illness from a correctional mental health facility followed up nearly 2 years after release. Recidivism base rates and LSI-OR scores were relatively consistent across major mental disorder

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Do risk assessment tools help manage and reduce risk of violence and reoffending? A systematic review – 2018

Although it is widely believed that risk assessment tools can help manage risk of violence and offending, it is unclear what evidence exists to support this view. As such, we conducted a systematic review and narrative synthesis. To identify studies, we searched 13 databases, reviewed reference lists, and contacted experts.

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Do scores on the HCR-20 and FAM predict frequency of self-harm in females within a secure psychiatric hospital? [2018]

The Historical, Clinical, and Risk Management scales (HCR-20) and the Female Additional Manual (FAM) are violence risk assessment tools. This study aimed to examine whether scores on the HCR-20 and FAM are related to frequency of self-harm. HCR-20 Version 3 and FAM scores and frequency of self-harm across the following

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Does the use of risk assessments in sentences respect the right to due process? A critical analysis of the Wisconsin v. Loomis ruling – 2018

On 13 July 2016, the Supreme Court of Wisconsin published a crucial decision which ruled for the first time ever about the constitutionality of using algorithms in sentencing. The ruling accepted their use, arguing that defendants’ right to due process was not violated by the mere fact that they could

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Dynamic Risk Assessment of Sexual Offenders: Validity and Dimensional Structure of the Stable-2007 – 2018

In this study, the predictive and incremental validity of the Stable-2007 beyond the Static-99 was evaluated in an updated sample of N = 638 adult male sexual offenders followed-up for an average of M = 8.2 years. Data were collected at the Federal Evaluation Center for Violent and Sexual Offenders

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Evaluating the utility of ‘strength’ items when assessing the risk of young offenders – 2018-01-15

There is emerging recognition that positive or pro-social characteristics may lessen criminal propensity. There are now several adult and youth forensic instruments that include protective or strength components. Yet evidence supporting the protective capacities of these instruments with youth offending populations is still developing. This study aimed to identity the

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Evaluating the utility of ‘strength’ items when assessing the risk of young offenders [2018]

There is emerging recognition that positive or pro-social characteristics may lessen criminal propensity. There are now several adult and youth forensic instruments that include protective or strength components. Yet evidence supporting the protective capacities of these instruments with youth offending populations is still developing. This study aimed to identity the

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