A comprehensive examination of the psychometric properties of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised in a Canadian multisite sample of indigenous and non-indigenous offenders – 2018

The present study examined the psychometric properties of Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003) scores in a multisite sample of 1,163 federally incarcerated Canadian indigenous and non-indigenous offenders from the Prairie Region of the Correctional Service of Canada. The research occurred against the backdrop of the Ewert v. Canada (2015)

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A Prospective Examination of the Predictive Validity of Five Structured Instruments for Inpatient Violence in a Secure Forensic Hospital – 2018

This prospective study investigated the predictive validity of five structured risk/forensic instruments for inpatient violence risk in a secure forensic hospital. Episodes of inpatient violence and the following instruments were each coded from hospital files: Historical Clinical Risk Management 20 – Version 3 (HCR-20V3), Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R), Short-Term Assessment

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A systematic PRISMA review of individuals with autism spectrum disorder in secure psychiatric care: prevalence, treatment, risk assessment and other clinical considerations – 2018

Purpose Patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) present with specific assessment, specific difficulties, needs and therapeutic issues and therefore are a challenging group for forensic services. Given the challenge that individuals with ASD present to forensic services, the suggested increase in the number of this group within this setting and

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Assessing change in dynamic risk factors in forensic psychiatric inpatients: relationship with psychopathy and recidivism – 2017-10

This study explored change in dynamic risk for violence using the Clinical and Risk Management subscales of the Historical Clinical and Risk Management-20 version 3 (HCR-20 v3) and sought to determine whether change was associated with violent recidivism. The association between the magnitude of change and psychopathy was also assessed.

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Can we keep it simple? Using the BARR-2002R with a community-based sex offender sample – 2017

The Brief Assessment of Recidivism Risk (BARR-2002R) comprises of six items from the Static-2002R and has been designed for predicting general and violent recidivism among sexual offenders. The present study investigates the ability of the BARR-2002R, Static-2002R, Static-99R, and SORAG to predict general, violent, and sexual recidivism in a sample

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Constituting the ‘sexually violent predator’: Law, forensic psychology, and the adjudication of risk – 2018

Considerable socio-legal scholarship demonstrates law’s constitutive power, and much criminological research has considered the effects of actuarial risk assessment. However, these strands have rarely been brought together to consider how legal risk assessment practices constitute sexual subjects. This article argues that law and forensic psychology co-constitute the category of the

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Decision-Making Behaviour under the Mental Health Act 1983 and Its Impact on Mental Health Tribunals: An English Perspective [2018]

In England and Wales, the Mental Health Act 1983 (MHA 1983) provides the legal framework which governs decisions made concerning the care and treatment of those suffering from mental disorders, where they may pose a risk to themselves or others. The perspective of the patient and the care provider may

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Development of the Nonverbal Cues of Interpersonal Violence Inventory: Law Enforcement Officers’ Perceptions of Nonverbal Behavior and Violence – 2018-01-20

Across two studies, we investigated nonverbal behaviors perceived to precede imminent interpersonal violence. Study 1 identified the six-factor structure of the Nonverbal Cues of Interpersonal Violence (NCIV) and also examined differences in perceptions of imminent interpersonal violence between law enforcement and laypersons. Study 2 confirmed the six-factor structure of the

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Do risk assessment tools help manage and reduce risk of violence and reoffending? A systematic review – 2018

Although it is widely believed that risk assessment tools can help manage risk of violence and offending, it is unclear what evidence exists to support this view. As such, we conducted a systematic review and narrative synthesis. To identify studies, we searched 13 databases, reviewed reference lists, and contacted experts.

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Do scores on the HCR-20 and FAM predict frequency of self-harm in females within a secure psychiatric hospital? [2018]

The Historical, Clinical, and Risk Management scales (HCR-20) and the Female Additional Manual (FAM) are violence risk assessment tools. This study aimed to examine whether scores on the HCR-20 and FAM are related to frequency of self-harm. HCR-20 Version 3 and FAM scores and frequency of self-harm across the following

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Does the use of risk assessments in sentences respect the right to due process? A critical analysis of the Wisconsin v. Loomis ruling – 2018

On 13 July 2016, the Supreme Court of Wisconsin published a crucial decision which ruled for the first time ever about the constitutionality of using algorithms in sentencing. The ruling accepted their use, arguing that defendants’ right to due process was not violated by the mere fact that they could

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Dynamic Risk Assessment of Sexual Offenders: Validity and Dimensional Structure of the Stable-2007 – 2018

In this study, the predictive and incremental validity of the Stable-2007 beyond the Static-99 was evaluated in an updated sample of N = 638 adult male sexual offenders followed-up for an average of M = 8.2 years. Data were collected at the Federal Evaluation Center for Violent and Sexual Offenders

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Evaluating the utility of ‘strength’ items when assessing the risk of young offenders – 2018-01-15

There is emerging recognition that positive or pro-social characteristics may lessen criminal propensity. There are now several adult and youth forensic instruments that include protective or strength components. Yet evidence supporting the protective capacities of these instruments with youth offending populations is still developing. This study aimed to identity the

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Field Inter-Rater Reliability of the Psychopathy Checklist–Revised – 2016-06-01

Strong inter-rater reliability has been established for the Hare Psychopathy Checklist–Revised (PCL-R), specifically by examiners in research contexts. However, there is less support for inter-reliability in applied settings. This study examined archival data that included a sample of sex offenders (n = 178) who entered federal custody between 1992 and

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Implementing a Violence Risk Screening Protocol in a Civil Psychiatric Setting: Preliminary Results and Clinical Policy Implications

Comprehensive violence risk assessment can require substantial time and resources, which may be challenging for an already strapped public mental health system. Herein, we describe a naturalistic study of the Fordham Risk Screening Tool (“FRST”), a violence risk screening instrument designed to quickly identify individuals for whom thorough violence risk

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Modifying a Risk Assessment Instrument for Youthful Offenders – 2016-07-15

High rates of incarceration in the United States are compounded by high rates of recidivism and prison return. One solution is more accurate identification of individual prisoner risks and needs to promote offender rehabilitation and successful community re-entry; this is particularly important for youthful offenders who developmentally are in late

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Offender Risk Assessment Practices Vary across Canada – 2018

The dominant Canadian approach to offender rehabilitation, the risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model, requires assessing offenders’ likelihood of recidivism and their criminogenic needs (i.e., risk/need assessments). The current study examines the risk/need assessments routinely used in Canadian corrections and compares their risk category labels. All Canadian jurisdictions used a risk/need tool for

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Popping the cultural bubble of violence risk assessment tools – 2017-07

Violence risk instruments are administered in medico-legal contexts to estimate an individual’s likelihood of future violence. However, their ostensible limitations; in particular their mono-cultural and risk-centric composition, has drawn academic attention. These concerns may facilitate erroneous risk evaluations for certain non-white populations. Yet it remains unaddressed how cultural differences will

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Predicting Institutional Aggression in Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities Using the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide – 2016

Background One of the most extensively tested risk assessment instruments in offenders with an intellectual disability (OIDs) is the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG). The purpose of this prospective study was to test the ability of this instrument to predict institutional aggression in OIDs. Method VRAG scores were collected for

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Prediction of Psychiatric Hospitalization, Diagnoses, Arrests, and Violent Behavior Through Scored Drawings and Associations – 2017-07-11

The article presents a completely empirical approach to using drawings and associations as a supplemental tool in forensic psychological assessment. The present system represents a modern alternative to prior theory-driven “projective technique” approaches that have failed to pass scientific scrutiny. Using an archival sample of 252 forensic cases, House-Tree-Person drawing

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Prediction of violent crime on discharge from secure psychiatric hospitals: A clinical prediction rule (FoVOx) – 2018-01

Background Current approaches to assess violence risk in secure hospitals are resource intensive, limited by accuracy and authorship bias and may have reached a performance ceiling. This study seeks to develop scalable predictive models for violent offending following discharge from secure psychiatric hospitals. Methods We identified all patients discharged from

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Protective Factors in Risk Assessment Schemes for Adolescents in Mental Health and Criminal Justice Populations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of their Predictive Efficacy – 2018-03

The consideration of protective factors has been integrated into a number of instruments whose aim is assess the risk of adverse outcomes among adolescents in high-risk mental health and criminal justice populations; however, little is known about their contribution to accurate risk prediction. We systematically reviewed the evidence for predictive

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Psychometric Examination of Treatment Change Among Mentally Disordered Offenders: A Risk–Needs Analysis – 2017-12

The present study examined the association of psychiatric symptomatology, criminal attitudes, and treatment changes within these domains to violent and general recidivism in a sample of 614 mentally disordered offenders. Significant pre–post changes were found on multiple measures of criminal attitudes, symptomatology, and readiness for change. Antisocial Intentions and Attitudes

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Psychometric Properties in Forensic Application of the Screening Version of the Psychopathy Checklist – 2018

The Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL: SV) is a short form of the Psychopathy Checklist–Revised (PCL-R), an expert-rated assessment that measures psychopathic personality traits in research, clinical, and community settings. The PCL-R is an extensively relied upon tool in psycho-legal contexts. The screening version is also widely used; however, it

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Psychopathy, the Big Five and empathy as predictors of violence in a forensic sample of substance abusers – 2018-02

It is widely recognized that substance abuse increases the general risk of delinquency and violent offenses in particular. Substance-related disorders are the primary cause of offenders being sentenced to mandatory treatment in forensic psychiatry. However, instead of a mono-causal link between addiction and violence, additional risk factors must be assumed.

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