Associations between methadone maintenance treatment and crime: a 17-year longitudinal cohort study of Canadian provincial offenders

Aims To estimate and test the difference in rates of violent and non-violent crime during medicated and non-medicated methadone treatment episodes. Design, Setting and Participants The study involved linkage of population level administrative data (health and justice) for all individuals (n = 14 530) in British Columbia, Canada with a history

Changes in the dispensing of opioid medications in Canada following the introduction of a tamper-deterrent formulation of long-acting oxycodone: a time series analysis – 2017

Background: In February 2012, a reformulated tamper-deterrent form of long-acting oxycodone, OxyNeo, was introduced in Canada. We investigated the impact of the introduction of OxyNeo on patterns of opioid prescribing. Methods: We conducted population-based, cross-sectional analyses of opioid dispensing in Canada between 2008 and 2016. We estimated monthly community pharmacy

Searching prison cells and prisoner bodies: Redacting carceral power and glimpsing gendered resistance in women’s prisons – 2018

In this article, I explore the routinized practices of prisoner discipline: searching bodies and cells in four Canadian federal women’s prisons. Through an analysis of post-search reports as well as reported incidents of use of force, I discuss three key findings: searching and confiscation patterns across institutions are not dictated

Nonmedical prescription opioid use and illegal drug use: initiation trajectory and related risks among people who use illegal drugs in Vancouver, Canada – 2018

Objective We investigated the prevalence of and risk factors associated with initiating nonmedical prescription opioid use (NMPOU) before and after illegal drugs using data from two linked cohort studies of street youth and adults who use illegal drugs in Vancouver, Canada. All participants who attended a study visit between 2013

An investigation of predictors of mental health in single men and women experiencing homelessness in three Canadian cities – 2018

Homelessness is related to poorer mental health, yet, there is limited understanding of the predictors of mental health of men and women experiencing homelessness. To support service providers in identifying individuals who might be at particular risk of poor mental health, this study investigated the predictors of mental health in

Understanding Systems Change in Early Implementation of Housing First in Canadian Communities: An Examination of Facilitators/Barriers, Training/Technical Assistance, and Points of Leverage – 2018

We present interim findings of a cross-site case study of an initiative to expand Housing First (HF) in Canada through training and technical assistance (TTA). HF is an evidence-based practice designed to end chronic homelessness for consumers of mental health services. We draw upon concepts from implementation science and systems

Correlates of Illicit Drug Use Among Indigenous Peoples in Canada: A Test of Social Support Theory – 2018

Relying on a national stratified random sample of Indigenous peoples aged 19 years old and above in Canada, this study investigates the correlates of illicit drug use among Indigenous peoples, paying special attention to the association between social support measures and illegal drug use. Results from multivariate logistical regression show

Do Investments in Mental Health Systems Result in Greater Use of Mental Health Services? National Trends in Mental Health Service Use (MHSU) in the Canadian Military and Comparable Canadian Civilians, 2002-2013 – 2018-02

Background: Mental disorders constitute a significant public health problem worldwide. Ensuring that those who need mental health services access them in an appropriate and timely manner is thus an important public health priority. We used data from 4 cross-sectional, nationally representative population health surveys that employed nearly identical methods to

Accessing drug treatment courts do age, race or gender matter? – 2018-02

To ensure equitable access to diversion from custody, Canadian drug treatment courts should accept referrals whose age, gender, and Indigenous race proportions are similar to probation or custody admissions. Of particular concern are Indigenous offenders, who are over-represented in Canada’s community and institutional corrections systems. To examine the influence of

Popping the cultural bubble of violence risk assessment tools – 2017-07

Violence risk instruments are administered in medico-legal contexts to estimate an individual’s likelihood of future violence. However, their ostensible limitations; in particular their mono-cultural and risk-centric composition, has drawn academic attention. These concerns may facilitate erroneous risk evaluations for certain non-white populations. Yet it remains unaddressed how cultural differences will

Coping and resilience among ethnoracial individuals experiencing homelessness and mental illness – 2018

Background: The multiple challenges that ethnoracial homeless individuals experiencing mental illness face are well documented. However, little is known about how this homeless subpopulation copes with the compounding stressors of racial discrimination, homelessness and mental illness. Aims: This study is an in-depth investigation of the personal perceived strengths, attitudes and

Building flexibility and managing complexity in community mental health: lessons learned in a large urban centre – 2018

Background Across many jurisdictions, adults with complex mental health and social needs face challenges accessing appropriate supports due to system fragmentation and strict eligibility criteria of existing services. To support this underserviced population, Toronto’s local health authority launched two novel community mental health models in 2014, inspired by Flexible Assertive