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Correlates of affiliate stigma among family caregivers of people with mental illness: A systematic review and meta‐analysis [2018]

Accessible Summary
What is known on the subject?
A growing body of qualitative and quantitative research has investigated the experiences of affiliated stigma for family members of PWMI.
Some findings are contradictory and have not been considered systematically.
What does the paper adds to existing knowledge?
Family caregivers of PWMI may encounter affiliate stigma, but no systematic review or meta‐analysis has been conducted to evaluate affiliate stigma among them.
We identified eight variables significantly related to affiliate stigma among caregivers of PWMI. The findings can be used to help clinical practice to develop health promotion and prevention strategies.
What are the implications for practice?
Affiliate stigma was prevalent among the family caregivers of PWMI and is important for clinicians to consider.
Health‐focused interventions for family caregivers can mediate the impact of affiliated stigma through provision of social support by practitioners, such as respite care based on the “Senses Framework,” self‐help groups and online support program. And the caregivers of PWMI might benefit from further support (e.g., psychoeducation) to improve their knowledge about mental illness.


Abstract
Introduction
Many studies have investigated the correlates of affiliate stigma among family caregivers of people with mental illness (PWMI). Thus far, no systematic review or meta‐analysis has been conducted to synthesize these results.

Aims/Question
This review aims to identify the correlates of affiliate stigma among family caregivers of PWMI.

Method
We searched four databases including PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE and Web of Science for studies that investigated the association of affiliate sigma with socio‐demographic, psychosocial and disease‐related factors.

Results
Twenty‐two studies including 3,381 participants met the inclusion criteria. Eighteen variables were included for the meta‐analysis. For disease‐related characteristics, only “disease attribution” and “care time/day” were associated with affiliate stigma. For psychosocial characteristics, “support from others,” “burden,” “depression,” “stress,” “distress” and “face concern” were related to affiliate stigma.

Discussion
This review is the first to assess the association of affiliate stigma with other characteristics of interest. However, the findings are limited due to a very small number of studies. Researchers should conduct in‐depth study in this area and improve the quality of the literature.

Implications for practice
Health‐focused interventions for family caregivers such as respite care, self‐help groups, online support program and psychosocial education can mediate the impact of affiliated stigma.

Ying Shi Yanping Shao Huanhuan Li Shouqi Wang Jie Ying Meiling Zhang Yuan Li Zhuangjie Xing Jiao Sun
Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Volume 26, Issue 1-2, February‐March 2019
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