In a pilot feasibility and effectiveness study, illness management and recovery (IMR), a curriculum-based program to help people with serious mental illness pursue personal recovery goals, was integrated into assertive community treatment (ACT) to improve participants’ recovery and functioning.
A small-scale cluster randomized controlled design was used to test implementation of IMR within ACT teams in two states. Eight high-fidelity ACT teams were assigned to provide IMR (ACT+IMR; four teams) or standard ACT services (ACT only; four teams). Clinical outcomes from 101 individuals with schizophrenia-spectrum or bipolar disorders were assessed at baseline, six months, and one year.
Exposure to IMR (session attendance and module completion) varied between the ACT+IMR teams, with participants on one team having significantly less exposure. Results from intent-to-treat analyses showed that participants in ACT+IMR demonstrated significantly better outcomes with a medium effect size at follow-up on clinician-rated illness self-management. A nonsignificant, medium effect size was found for one measure of functioning, and small effect sizes were observed for client-rated illness self-management and community integration. Session and module completion predicted better outcomes on four of the 12-month outcome measures.
Findings support the feasibility of implementing IMR within ACT teams. Although there were few significant findings, effect sizes on some variables in this small-scale study and the dose-response relationships within ACT+IMR teams suggest this novel approach could be promising for improving recovery for people with serious mental illness. Further large-scale studies utilizing a hybrid effectiveness-implementation design could provide a promising direction in this area.
Maria Monroe-DeVita, Ph.D., Gary Morse, Ph.D., Kim T. Mueser, Ph.D., Gregory J. McHugo, Ph.D., Haiyi Xie, Ph.D., Kevin A. Hallgren, Ph.D., Roselyn Peterson, B.A., Joris Miller, M.S.W., Christopher Akiba, M.P.H., Mary York, M.S.W., Susan Gingerich, M.S.W., Bryan Stiles, B.A.
Psychiatric Services, February 15, 2018