Despite the prevalence of substance dependence in incarcerated populations and the correlation between substance use and crime, only 11% receive substance abuse treatment, even as treatment participation may help reduce institutional misbehavior and postrelease recidivism. The current research examined the influence of individual and program factors on substance abuse treatment participation and prison misconducts in a state prison system. Based on analyses of administrative data from 2012 to 2015 and program data, the findings support previous research documenting participant characteristics as predictors of misconducts. In addition, program training requirements significantly predicted misconducts. Implications and research recommendations are discussed.