The present study sought to examine predictors of attrition from residential treatment for adolescents with addictive behaviors. Using data from 137 adolescents and their families, latent variable models were constructed to examine three child/adolescent factors and three parenting factors as predictors of attrition. Findings indicated that emotional/social difficulties and parental involvement in treatment, as well as their interaction, had a direct effect on attrition. In addition, parenting in adolescence interacted with both substance/behavioral problems and early caregiver discipline to predict attrition. This study provided insight into the exacerbating effects of neglectful or absent parenting practices in the successful completion of adolescent substance use treatment.