Objective: Current knowledge regarding the intersection of psychiatric disorders and crime in the United States is limited to psychiatric, forensic, and youth samples. This study presents nationally representative data on the relationship of DSM-5 psychiatric disorders, comorbid substance and mental health disorders, and multimorbidity (number of disorders) with criminal behavior and justice involvement among non-institutionalized US adults.
Methods: Data were drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Wave III (NESARC-III; 2012–2013; N = 36,309). Logistic regressions were used to examine the association of specific disorders (eg, mood, anxiety, eating, posttraumatic stress, substance use), comorbid substance use and mental health disorders, and multimorbidity with lifetime criminal behavior, incarceration experience, and past-12-month general, alcohol-related, and drug-related legal problems.
Results: Overall, 28.5% of participants reported a history of criminal behavior, 11.4% reported a history of incarceration, 1.8% reported current general legal problems, 0.8% reported current alcohol-related legal problems, and 2.7% reported current drug-related legal problems. The presence of any disorder was associated with a 4 to 5 times increased risk of crime outcomes. Drug use disorders were associated with the highest risk of lifetime crime (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.8; 95% CI, 6.1–7.6) and incarceration (AOR = 4.7; 95% CI, 4.1–5.3) and current legal problems (AOR = 3.3; 95% CI, 2.6–4.2). Multimorbidity and comorbid substance use and mental health disorders were associated with additional risk. Controlling for antisocial personality disorder did not change the findings.
Conclusions: Community adults with substance use disorders, comorbid substance use and mental health disorders, and increasing multimorbidity are most at risk of crime and justice involvement, highlighting the importance of community-based addiction treatment.
Kelly E. Moore, PhD; Lindsay M. S. Oberleitner, PhD; Howard V. Zonana, MD; Alec W. Buchanan, MD; Brian P. Pittman, MS; Terril L. Verplaetse, PhD; Gustavo A. Angarita, MD; Walter Roberts, PhD; and Sherry A. McKee, PhD
Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 2019; 80(2)