To test the independent links between social support that exists prior to and during confinement with support after release for adult males incarcerated for an average of 11 months in the Netherlands.
Longitudinal data from a large study on consequences of confinement, the Prison Project, are used to describe instrumental (live with) and expressive (core network) support before and after confinement from four sources (parent, partner, other family, friend) and during-confinement visits by the same groups. Multiequation models examine the contribution of preconfinement support and visits to postconfinement support, while also describing the interrelationship of support sources.
Preconfinement support is consistently related to receiving the same type after release. Receiving visits during confinement has a unique relationship with receiving postconfinement expressive support across all relational groups. Only visits from partners has an additional influence on instrumental support after release. Postconfinement support across provider groups is interrelated, with a positive correlation across providers for expressive support and a substitution effect for instrumental support between parents and partners.
After controlling for important preconfinement differences in support, visits remain significantly related to postconfinement expressive support, suggesting a possible mechanism by which visits help improve reentry outcomes.