The measurement of violent behavior presents serious challenges for research on violence. In the current article, we present initial tests of the construct validity of scores on the Violent Behavior Vignette Questionnaire (VBVQ), which consists of a series of interpersonal conflict vignettes with response options in a multiple-choice format designed to measure current violent behavior. Violent responses on the initial version of the VBVQ generally corresponded to independent indicators of physical aggressiveness and violent behavior among male university students, men in the community, and incarcerated male offenders. We then refined the VBVQ and again tested the validity of its scores in new samples of men in the community and incarcerated male offenders. In both samples, men who selected a violent response option on the VBVQ generally had much higher levels of physical aggressiveness and violent behavior than did men who selected non-violent response options. However, VBVQ responses were not associated with the number of violent offenses in offenders’ official criminal records. Our findings provide some support for the use of the VBVQ in lab and correctional/forensic research, but further research is required to determine whether it offers advantages over other measures.