Culturally Relevant Programming versus the Status Quo: A Meta-analytic Review of the Effectiveness of Treatment of Indigenous Offenders [2018]

The over-representation of Indigenous peoples in criminal justice systems internationally remains a critical issue. Some have argued that replacing generic services with culturally relevant programming would be an effective strategy to address this problem. This meta-analysis examines the effectiveness of culturally relevant programs for Indigenous offenders compared to conventional programs.

Service utilization and suicide among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders [2018]

Objective To compare individuals with and without schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or psychotic disorder not otherwise specified) who die by suicide. Method This is a retrospective case control study which compared all individuals who died by suicide in Ontario, Canada with (cases) and without (controls) SSD between

How do ED patients with criminal justice contact compare with other ED users? A retrospective analysis of ED visits in California [2018]

Objective To assess the patterns of emergency department (ED) utilisation among those with and without criminal justice contact in California in 2014, comparing variation in ED use, visit frequency, diagnoses and insurance coverage. Design Retrospective, cross-sectional study. Setting Analyses included ED visits to all licensed hospitals in California using statewide

A Comparison of Participants in Two Community-Based Programs: Assisted Outpatient Treatment and a Mental Health Court [2018]

Objective: Mental health courts and assisted outpatient treatment (AOT) are tools to help people with serious mental illness engage in treatment and avoid or reduce institutionalization. As both programs become increasingly prevalent, questions remain about whether people with severe mental illness who receive AOT have the same characteristics, histories, and

Longitudinal Effects of Activities, Social Environment, and Psychotropic Medication Use on Behavioral Symptoms of Individuals With Alzheimer’s Disease in Nursing Homes [2018]

A secondary data analysis of 25,560 minutes of structured clinical observations from a longitudinal study examined the impact of time-varying background factors, social environment, and psychotropic medication use on behavioral symptoms of nursing home residents with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Data were collected at baseline (N = 177), 12 months (N

Degree of Anger During Anger-Generating Situations Among Psychiatric Staff Nurses: Association Between Nurses’ Attitudes Toward Service Users’ Aggression and Confidence in Intervening in Aggressive Situations [2018]

Some situations require psychiatric staff nurses to respond to service users’ negativity or aggression. As a result, psychiatric staff nurses may experience anger. The current study examined how anger levels of psychiatric staff nurses triggered by anger-generating situations by service users affected nurses’ confidence and attitudes. A questionnaire survey was

What Can the Experiences of People With an Intellectual Disability Tell Us About the Desirable Attributes of a Mental Health Professional? [2018]

Introduction: Mental health professionals have reported that they have limited knowledge, skills, and confidence in the area of intellectual disability mental health. This article aims to learn from the experiences of people with intellectual disability about the attributes that may assist mainstream mental health professionals to provide them with a

The Prevalence and Characteristics of Intellectual and Borderline Intellectual Disabilities in a Sample of Inpatients with Substance Use Disorders: Preliminary Clinical Results [2018]

Introduction: There is reason to believe that many individuals with substance use disorders (SUD), who are in contact with services, have an undiagnosed intellectual disability. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of intellectual and borderline intellectual disabilities (ID/BID) among inpatients with SUD and to further

Behavioral Characteristics of Individuals with Down Syndrome [2018]

Introduction: Children and young adults with Down syndrome can demonstrate increased behavior problems compared to their typically developing peers through childhood and adolescence. Though current tools measure behavior problems in persons with intellectual disabilities, they do not capture all the behavioral problems that can occur in individuals with Down syndrome.

Clinical high risk for psychosis: The effects of labelling on public stigma in a undergraduate population [2018]

Aim Schizophrenia is a highly stigmatized disorder. Identification of youth at high risk for psychosis has the potential for improved outcomes. However, identifying youth at risk could subject them to increased public stigma. Using an experimental vignette design, this study examined relative levels of public stigma elicited by the labels

Strengthening mental health nurses’ resilience through a workplace resilience programme: A qualitative inquiry [2018]

Accessible summary What is known on the subject? Mental health nurses are affected by interpersonal, practice‐related and organizational factors that can increase workplace stress and reduce their physical and mental health and well‐being. Resilience programmes are a strength‐based preventative approach to supporting individuals to overcome workplace adversities. What the paper

What influences social outcomes among offenders with personality disorder: A systematic review [2018]

Background Personality disorder is highly prevalent in offender populations and is associated with poor health, criminal justice, and social outcomes. Research has been conducted into factors that influence offending and health, but, in order to improve (re)habilitation, service providers must also be able to identify the variables associated with social

The role of socioeconomic status in the relationship between detention and self‐rated health among prison detainees in Belgium [2018]

Prisoners are known to report worse health than the general population. Research has also shown that the prison population counts disproportionally more people with a lower socioeconomic status (SES), making it difficult to determine whether the worse self‐reported health of prisoners is an effect of their detention or of their

Stakeholder perspectives on the stigma of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder [2018]

Background: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a condition afflicting children born to women who consumed alcohol during pregnancy that can lead to secondary disabilities including cognitive and social deficits. Both, children with FASD, and their biological mothers, are targets of FASD stigma. This study seeks to identify stereotypes, prejudice,

‘I am not drunk, I have an ABI’: findings from a qualitative study into systematic challenges in responding to people with acquired brain injuries in the justice system [2018]

The over-representation of acquired brain injury (ABI) amongst prisoner and juvenile justice populations is a significant issue across jurisdictions. This article reports on the findings of over 100 interviews conducted in Victoria, Australia with people who have an ABI, as well as key stakeholder groups who work in, or with,

Mindfulness-based interventions for youth in the criminal justice system: a review of the research-based literature [2018]

Mindfulness is a technique and sense of being present in the moment that incorporates aspects of acceptance, openness and meditation with the ultimate intention of improving well-being. Research indicates that mindfulness can significantly improve negative personality traits, reduce stress, increase attention, alleviate chronic pain and enhance mental health. Mindfulness-based interventions