“Just be a light”: Experiences of peers working on acute inpatient psychiatric units – 2017

Objective: The study aimed to clarify the potential role and impact of behavioral health peer support providers on community hospital acute inpatient psychiatric units. Method: Qualitative interviews were conducted to examine perspectives of peer support providers (peers) and individuals who initially received peer services (recipients) during an inpatient stay on

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1st International Experts’ Meeting on Agitation: Conclusions Regarding the Current and Ideal Management Paradigm of Agitation – 2018

Agitation is a heterogeneous concept without a uniformly accepted definition, however, it is generally considered as a state of cognitive and motor hyperactivity characterized by excessive or inappropriate motor or verbal activity with marked emotional arousal. Not only the definition but also other aspects of agitated patients’ care are still

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A comparison of latent profiles in antisocial male offenders – 2018

Highlights • Performed a Latent Profile Analysis on the Self-Report Psychopathy (SRP) scale • Four distinct antisocial profiles were identified in male offenders. • The four profiles were dissociated by personality and criminogenic factors. • First demonstration of valid antisocial profiles using a psychopathy questionnaire Abstract Purpose Within forensic settings, the

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A Comparison of Participants in Two Community-Based Programs: Assisted Outpatient Treatment and a Mental Health Court [2018]

Objective: Mental health courts and assisted outpatient treatment (AOT) are tools to help people with serious mental illness engage in treatment and avoid or reduce institutionalization. As both programs become increasingly prevalent, questions remain about whether people with severe mental illness who receive AOT have the same characteristics, histories, and

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A comparison of the reported use of involuntary treatment orders within Australian jurisdictions [2018]

Objective: This paper identifies publicly available data about the use of involuntary treatment orders within Australia and considers whether this reporting is sufficient given the gravity of the intervention. Method: A search of mental health tribunal, health department and justice department annual reports was conducted to determine the use of

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A pilot study of “post‐seclusion and/or restraint review” intervention with patients and staff in a mental health setting – 2018

Abstract 1 Purpose To develop and evaluate a “post‐seclusion and/or restraint review” (PSRR) intervention implemented in an acute psychiatric care unit. 2 Design and Methods Twelve staff members and three patients were enrolled in a participatory case study. To evaluate PSRR intervention, qualitative analysis was carried out. Seclusion and restraint

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A randomised controlled trial of a cognitive skills programme for offenders with mental illness [2018]

Background Interventions for offenders with mental illness have tended to be confined to treatment of illness, with the expectation that symptom reduction will be accompanied by reduced criminal recidivism, but recent evidence suggests that other treatment targets may be more effective against recidivism. Aim The aim of this study was

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A review of factors associated with severe violence in schizophrenia [2018]

Background: There is a modest but consistent association between violence and schizophrenia. The consequences of serious violence could be catastrophic for the victims, as well as the patients themselves and the community. Any knowledge that would help to prevent acts of serious violence would be of considerable value for the

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A Survey of Hospital Ethics Structures in Ontario

In response to the growing recognition of the prevalence of ethical issues in clinical care, hospitals in Canada began forming ethics committees in the 1980s. Studies showed significant growth in the prevalence of ethics committees over the ensuing decade. Although the limited studies available suggest that ethics committees have become

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Acute Care Use for Ambulatory Care–Sensitive Conditions in High-Cost Users of Medical Care with Mental Illness and Addictions – 2018-01-18

Objective: The role of mental illness and addiction in acute care use for chronic medical conditions that are sensitive to ambulatory care management requires focussed attention. This study examines how mental illness or addiction affects risk for repeat hospitalization and/or emergency department use for ambulatory care–sensitive conditions (ACSCs) among high-cost

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Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder among the prison inmates: An investigation of the executive function differences and comorbidity effects [2018]

Objective Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders that often persist into adulthood. ADHD is associated with a high percentage of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Studies indicate that ADHD is prevalent among inmates. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the executive functions (EFs),

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Adverse events occurring on mental health units – 2018-01

Objective While the study of suicide on mental health units has a long history, the study of patient safety more generally is relatively new. Our objective was to determine the type and relative frequency of adverse events occurring on Veterans Health Administration (VHA) mental health units; the primary root causes

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Aggression among 216 patients with a first-psychotic episode of bipolar I disorder [2018]

Background Aggression by patients with bipolar I disorder (BD-I) is not uncommon. Identifying potential risk factors early in the illness-course should inform clinical management and reduce risk. Methods In a study sample of 216 initially hospitalized, first-psychotic episode subjects diagnosed with DSM-IV-TR BD-I, we identified recent (within 1 month before

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An algorithm for managing adults who refuse medical treatment in New South Wales – 2018-02

Objectives: The assessment and management of a patient who refuses medical treatment requires clinical skill, and consideration of the relevant law and the patient’s decision-making capacity. Psychiatrists are often asked to advise in these situations. We aimed to develop an algorithm describing the relevant legal pathways to assist clinicians, especially

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An audit of patient aggression in an adult psychiatric unit: 2013–2014 – 2018

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the rates of patient aggression in a psychiatric unit over 12 months and to determine underlying causes, notably the role of substances. Methods: A retrospective file audit was undertaken of all patients admitted to St Vincent’s psychiatric unit (Melbourne, Australia) in

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An evaluation of a specialist firesetting treatment programme for male and female mentally disordered offenders (the FIP‐MO) – 2017

Individuals who set deliberate fires are frequently encountered by clinicians working in forensic mental health services. However, little attention has been paid to developing standardised treatment for this behaviour, and few evaluations of treatment have been conducted in forensic mental health services. This study evaluates a new standardised group cognitive

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An integrative review exploring the physical and psychological harm inherent in using restraint in mental health inpatient settings – 2018

In Western society, policy and legislation seeks to minimize restrictive interventions, including physical restraint; yet research suggests the use of such practices continues to raise concerns. Whilst international agreement has sought to define physical restraint, diversity in the way in which countries use restraint remains disparate. Research to date has

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Anger and aggression treatments: a review of meta-analyses – 2018-02

Highlights • There is considerable variability in the effectiveness of anger treatments. • Cognitive-behavioral interventions are the most commonly studied treatment of anger. • Court-mandated anger management classes are underrepresented in the literature. • Behavioral rehearsal may be more effective than therapy targeting cognitive changes. • Future research will benefit from a

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Anhedonia and suicidal thoughts and behaviors in psychiatric outpatients: The role of acuity [2018]

1 Background Anhedonia—impairment related to the experience of pleasure—has been identified as a potential risk factor for suicide, with some mixed findings. The current study sought to clarify the role of acuity of anhedonia in the relationship between anhedonia and suicidal thoughts and behaviors by comparing acutely and chronically anhedonic

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Applications of Yoga in Psychiatry: What We Know – 2018

Yoga has been in use for thousands of years in the East as a healing modality. Western practitioners are now starting to recognize the potential of yoga-based treatments. The purpose of this article is to explore the evidence-base of yoga-based treatments for depression and anxiety with the purpose of furthering

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Assessment of nursing workload in adult psychiatric inpatient units: A scoping review [2018]

What is known on the subject?There is a shortage of empirical research in the field of psychiatric and mental health nursing regarding how to calculate a safe staffing level in psychiatry inpatient units. Furthermore, the tools to assess nursing workload in this specialty are limited. No systematic reviews on measurement

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Association between alcohol and substance use disorders and psychiatric service use in patients with severe mental illness: a nationwide Danish register-based cohort study – 2018-02

Substance use disorder is highly prevalent in people with psychiatric disorders, and known to impede the psychiatric treatment. Some studies show increased rates of service use, while others show a decrease. These conflicting results are further hampered by a lack of large-scale studies. The aim of this study was to

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Association of Childhood Blood Lead Levels With Criminal Offending – 2017-12-26

Key Points Question Is childhood lead exposure associated with criminal offending in a setting where the degree of lead exposure was not confounded by socioeconomic status? Findings In this cohort study of 553 New Zealanders observed for 38 years, lead exposure in childhood was weakly associated with official criminal conviction

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Associations between high ambient temperatures and heat waves with mental health outcomes: a systematic review [2018]

Highlights • Significant gaps exist in our understanding of the impact of heat on mental health. • The strongest evidence exists for an increased risk of suicide in high temperatures. • Risk of hospital admission for mental illness increases in high temperatures. • Weak evidence exists of increased all-cause mortality in those with mental

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Atypical and Severe Nonsuicidal Self-Injury as an Indicator of Severe Psychopathology: Findings From a Sample of High-Risk Community Mental Health Clients [2018]

This study examined whether atypical/severe nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI; e.g., foreign body ingestion, cutting necessitating sutures) serves as a marker of severe psychopathology among 467 adult community mental health clients (n = 33 with an atypical/severe NSSI history). Information regarding psychiatric risk indicators was extracted from participants’ psychiatric records. Generalized linear

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