‘A human rights issue’: Lack of treatment for drug users means deaths behind bars – CBC – 2018-04-03

Michelle McPherson’s son Curtis McGowan was rushed to the Guelph, Ont., hospital by paramedics after overdosing, where he was revived with the opioid-reversal drug naloxone. “The police were there to arrest him … because part of his probation is not using drugs,” she recalled. A month later, he was found

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‘I have it just in case’ — Naloxone access and changes in opioid use behaviours – 2018-01

Background The past decade has seen over a four-fold increase in deaths from opioid overdose in the United States. To address this growing epidemic, many localities initiated policies to expand access to naloxone (a drug that reverses the effects of opioids); however, little is known how naloxone access affects opioid

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‘The right way to be a woman’: Negotiating femininity in a prison-based drug treatment programme – 2017-12-22

Drawing from an ethnographic study in a drug treatment wing for women in a Danish prison, the authors explore how femininity is negotiated between prisoners and staff. It is shown how the staff view the prisoners as both passive and disruptive and how the treatment aims to teach them what

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“I Was Not Sick and I Didn’t Need to Recover”: Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) as a Refuge from Criminalization – 2017-07

Background: Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) in the United States (U.S.) has been undergoing a shift towards conceptualizing the program as recovery-based treatment. Although recovery is seen by some as a means to restore MMT to its rightful position as a medically-based treatment for addiction, it may not represent the experiences,

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A randomized trial of female-specific cognitive behavior therapy for alcohol dependent women – 2018-02

This study compared Female-Specific Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (FS-CBT) to evidence-based, gender-neutral CBT (GN-CBT; Epstein & McCrady, 2009) for women with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Women (N = 99) with AUD, mean age 48, were randomly assigned to 12 outpatient manual-guided sessions of FS-CBT (n = 44) or GN-CBT (n =

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A randomized, open label trial of methadone continuation versus forced withdrawal in a combined US prison and jail: Findings at 12 months post-release – 2018-03

Highlights • MMT during incarceration leads to lower injection drug and heroin use. • MMT during incarceration leads to fewer non-fatal overdoses. • MMT during incarceration leads to higher rates of engagement in treatment. Abstract Recently, incarcerated individuals are at increased risk of opioid overdose. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is

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A Systematic Review of Psychosocial Interventions in Treatment of Opioid Addiction [2018]

Opioid addiction has become a U.S. epidemic. It is important to determine whether psychosocial interventions help prevent relapse. A total of 14 studies were included in this systematic review. Most studies compared psychosocial interventions in conjunction with pharmacological maintenance. Only 2 studies found that psychosocial interventions led to statistically significant

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Activism and scientific research: 20 years of community action by the Vancouver area network of drug users – 2018

Background Over the past several decades, there have been numerous peer-reviewed articles written about people who use drugs (PWUDs) from the Downtown Eastside neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada. While individual researchers have engaged and acknowledged this population as participants and community partners in their work, there has been comparatively little attention

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Addiction Social Work Fellowship Program in Canada [2018]

Substance use disorders (SUD) disproportionally contribute to the global social and economic cost of disease; however, their treatment has been inadequate in large part due to an enduring research to practice gap in which competencies for treating and preventing SUDs are often lacking from social work education curricula. Training social

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Age of Cannabis Use Onset and Adult Drug Abuse Symptoms: A Prospective Study of Common Risk Factors and Indirect Effects [2018]

The present study examined 1) whether the associations between cannabis use (CU) age of onset and drug abuse by 28 y remain when controlling for risk factors in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood; and 2) the developmental pathways from early risk factors to drug abuse problems. Participants from a longitudinal

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Alcohol use disorders in people with intellectual disability – 2018

This article initially highlights that although the prevalence of alcohol use disorders in people with intellectual disability (PWID) appears to be low, it is a significant issue. This group can be more vulnerable to the adverse effects of alcohol and it is likely that many PWID who have alcohol use

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Alcohol, drugs, and violence: A meta-meta-analysis – 2018

Objective: The aim of this project was to provide a comprehensive overview and quantitative synthesis of the links between alcohol, drugs, and violence with established meta-meta-analysis methodology. Gender, psychotic illness (present vs. absent), role (perpetrator vs. victim), substance (alcohol, drugs, or both), operationalizations of violence (e.g., laboratory observed violence, community

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Alcohol, drugs, and violence: A meta-meta-analysis – 2018-02

Objective: The aim of this project was to provide a comprehensive overview and quantitative synthesis of the links between alcohol, drugs, and violence with established meta-meta-analysis methodology. Gender, psychotic illness (present vs. absent), role (perpetrator vs. victim), substance (alcohol, drugs, or both), operationalizations of violence (e.g., laboratory observed violence, community

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Ambulance-attended opioid overdoses: an examination into overdose locations and the role of a safe injection facility [2018]

Background: Although the United States and numerous other countries are amidst an opioid overdose crisis, access to safe injection facilities remains limited. Methods: We used prospective data from ambulance journals in Oslo, Norway to describe the patterns, severity, and outcomes of opioid overdoses, and compared these characteristics among various overdose

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An Emotion Regulation Treatment for Young People With Complex Substance Use and Mental Health Issues: A Case-Series Analysis [2018]

Highlights • Young people seeking treatment for AoD issues present with complex patterns of mental health and substance use comorbidity. • Treatments which target emotion regulation have the potential to address the complex needs of this cohort. • An emotion regulation intervention was piloted with a cohort of young adults in a residential

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An Epidemiological Study of Substance Use Disorders Among Emerging and Young Adults [2018]

Objectives: We investigated the prevalence of substance use disorders (SUDs) among emerging adults and quantified the extent to which emerging adults, compared with young adults, have increased odds for SUDs. Methods: Data were from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey–Mental Health (CCHS-MH). Respondents were 15 to 39 y of age

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An Evaluation of e-CHECKUP TO GO in Canada: The Mediating Role of Changes in Social Norm Misperceptions – 2018

Background: Alcohol use and related problems are key concerns among colleges, and web-based interventions to mitigate these issues are increasingly popular across campuses. A variety of programs are commercially available and have demonstrated efficacy in reducing alcohol use and consequences; however, little is known about how these programs reduce alcohol

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An Exploration of Emergency Physicians’ Attitudes Toward Patients With Substance Use Disorder – 2018

Objectives: Much is known about some healthcare professionals’ attitudes toward patients with substance use disorders, but few studies have specifically looked at emergency department (ED) physicians. Individuals with substance use disorders are more likely to be people who chronically, frequently use the ED, and thus ED physicians are in a

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Are People Who Inject Drugs Frequent Users of Emergency Department Services? A Cohort Study (2008–2013) – 2017-10

Background: Although people who inject drugs (PWID) have been described as frequent users of emergency services, the majority of research is cross-sectional and involves records from a single emergency department (ED). Objectives: We describe characteristics of state-wide ED presentations in a cohort of PWID, and compare presentation rates to the

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Are take‐home naloxone programmes effective? Systematic review utilizing application of the Bradford Hill criteria – 2016

Background and Aims Fatal outcome of opioid overdose, once detected, is preventable through timely administration of the antidote naloxone. Take‐home naloxone provision directly to opioid users for emergency use has been implemented recently in more than 15 countries worldwide, albeit mainly as pilot schemes and without formal evaluation. This systematic

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Are we anywhere near there yet? The state of harm reduction in North America in 2017

The emergence of the new disease, AIDS (first reported as a clinical syndrome in the USA in 1981), was the principal reason for the birth of harm reduction in the mid to late 1980s. The first appearance of clinical evidence of AIDS was based on the appearance of opportunistic infections

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Association between alcohol and substance use disorders and psychiatric service use in patients with severe mental illness: a nationwide Danish register-based cohort study – 2018-02

Substance use disorder is highly prevalent in people with psychiatric disorders, and known to impede the psychiatric treatment. Some studies show increased rates of service use, while others show a decrease. These conflicting results are further hampered by a lack of large-scale studies. The aim of this study was to

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Association of Cannabis Use With Adolescent Psychotic Symptoms [2018]

Considering that jurisdictions are moving toward cannabis legalization and the anticipated changes to the Canadian policy planned for July 2018, there is a need to understand whether cannabis use has a causal role in the development of psychiatric diseases, such as psychosis. Prospective studies report a temporal precedence of cannabis

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Associations between methadone maintenance treatment and crime: a 17-year longitudinal cohort study of Canadian provincial offenders

Aims To estimate and test the difference in rates of violent and non-violent crime during medicated and non-medicated methadone treatment episodes. Design, Setting and Participants The study involved linkage of population level administrative data (health and justice) for all individuals (n = 14 530) in British Columbia, Canada with a history

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Associations between pharmacotherapy for opioid dependence and clinical and criminal justice outcomes among adults with co-occurring serious mental illness – 2018

Highlights • Opioid-dependence pharmacotherapy is effective for adults with severe mental illness and opioid dependence. • Opioid-dependence pharmacotherapy substantially reduces this population’s risk for hospitalization. • Naltrexone appears to reduce risk for convicted arrests, including felonies. • Opioid-dependence pharmacotherapy was not superior to other treatment in reducing incarceration risk. • Opioid-dependence

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