“That’s Just the Tip of It Because It Goes Deeper Than That”: A Qualitative Exploration Into the Role of Mental Illness in Offending Onset and Subsequent Offending Behavior – 2018

There continues to be considerable debate regarding the most effective ways to reduce the number of mentally ill offenders in the adult criminal justice system. What is often missing from this national discussion is an examination of the factors associated with their initial involvement in illegal activities. This qualitative study

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A Preliminary Investigation of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles–Layperson Edition–Short Form [2017]

The Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) is commonly used to assess criminal thinking (thoughts related to criminal behavior); however, the item wording may not be an appropriate assessment for individuals without a criminal history (laypersons) who still may be at risk of engaging in crime. Therefore, a layperson

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A Year Without a Conviction: An Integrated Examination of Potential Mechanisms for Successful Reentry in High-Risk Violent Prisoners [2018]

Some high-risk prisoners on parole “beat the odds”: remaining in the community through their first year without incurring even minor reconvictions. What makes the difference? We investigated three potential mechanisms for postrelease survival—lower dynamic risk, greater readiness for parole, and earlier and longer parole oversight—in two samples: 120 men who

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Acting on delusions: the role of negative affect in the pathway towards serious violence [2018]

Acting violently on delusions is a significant clinical problem. Recent research has identified state anger as key component in the pathway from persecutory/threat delusions to serious violence. To determine the magnitude of the effect of delusional anger and to investigate a dose-response relationship we carried out a prospective follow-up study

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Adverse Childhood Experiences and Justice-Involved Youth: The Effect of Trauma and Programming on Different Recidivistic Outcomes [2018]

Studies have demonstrated that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are prevalent in justice-involved youth and related to recidivism. However, the effect of programming on reducing reoffending for youth with a trauma history is not well researched. This study aims to examine the prevalence of ACEs across different subsets of justice-involved youth,

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An analysis of high-risk offending pathways for young females in custody [2018]

Adolescent females who have engaged in severe and/or chronic offending are an understudied population internationally. The literature on female offending pathways has indeed advanced, and there is a better understanding of how female offending behaviours manifest and how correctional agencies should be responding. However, much of the existing research has

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An Examination of Parental and Peer Influence on Substance Use and Criminal Offending During the Transition From Adolescence to Adulthood – 2018

Although peer behavior and parent–child conflict have been associated with adolescent and young adults’ behavior, prior studies have not adequately controlled for selection effects and other confounders, or examined whether associations change across the transition to adulthood or by race. Using annual data from men followed from age 17 to

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Are police cautions a soft option? Reoffending among juveniles cautioned or referred to court [2018]

During the 1990s, many jurisdictions introduced police cautions as an alternative to referral to court for juveniles committing comparatively minor offences. The policy was motivated by a concern that contact with the court system for such offenders might be criminogenic. In recent years, however, elected officials have criticised police cautions

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Assessing change in dynamic risk factors in forensic psychiatric inpatients: relationship with psychopathy and recidivism – 2017-10

This study explored change in dynamic risk for violence using the Clinical and Risk Management subscales of the Historical Clinical and Risk Management-20 version 3 (HCR-20 v3) and sought to determine whether change was associated with violent recidivism. The association between the magnitude of change and psychopathy was also assessed.

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Association Between Deliberate Self-harm and Violent Criminality [2017]

Key Points Question Are individuals who self-harm prone to aggressive behavior toward others? Findings In this population-based cohort study of 1 850 525 individuals, there was an almost doubled risk of violent crime among self-harming individuals after adjusting for psychiatric comorbidity and socioeconomic status. Meaning The risk of future violence, as well

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Association of Childhood Blood Lead Levels With Criminal Offending – 2017-12-26

Key Points Question Is childhood lead exposure associated with criminal offending in a setting where the degree of lead exposure was not confounded by socioeconomic status? Findings In this cohort study of 553 New Zealanders observed for 38 years, lead exposure in childhood was weakly associated with official criminal conviction

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Association of Childhood Blood Lead Levels With Criminal Offending – 2018-02

Key Points Question Is childhood lead exposure associated with criminal offending in a setting where the degree of lead exposure was not confounded by socioeconomic status? Findings In this cohort study of 553 New Zealanders observed for 38 years, lead exposure in childhood was weakly associated with official criminal conviction

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Associations between posttraumatic stress and legal charges among substance using veterans – 2018

Substance misuse is prevalent among veterans entering the criminal justice system, and is related to recidivism. Research demonstrates that trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, which commonly co-occur with substance misuse, also increase the risk of legal involvement and recidivism. However, it is unclear whether the associations between trauma,

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Australian prison vocational education and training and returns to custody among male and female ex-prisoners: A cross-jurisdictional study – 2018

The current study examined the impact of vocational education and training in the custody setting on returns to custody among Australian adult prisoners from selected jurisdictions. Vocational education and training, education, and behavioural change programme participation in custody and demographic and risk assessment data were provided by correctional services in

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Behavioral Addictions and Criminal Responsibility – 2017-12

Certain behavioral addictions pose difficult and unresolved problems for the criminal justice system. These disorders are characterized by strong desire states and may be associated with illegal behaviors that are committed to support the addiction. In this article, we begin with a general account of criminal responsibility and provide the

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Beyond Recidivism: Investigating Comparative Educational and Employment Outcomes for Adolescents in the Juvenile and Criminal Justice Systems [2018]

While the relationship between juvenile transfer and recidivism has received much scholarly attention, the effect of transfer on other outcomes has largely been ignored. This study examined the effect of transfer on 7-year educational and employment outcomes, with time in the community and perceived stigma as hypothesized mediators. Pathways to

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Borderline personality disorder symptoms and criminal justice system involvement: The roles of emotion-driven difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors and physical Aggression [2017]

Objective Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with elevated risk for a variety of risky behaviors, including criminal behaviors. Yet, limited research has examined the relation of BPD to criminal justice (CJ) involvement, or the mechanisms underlying this relation. Procedures This study examined the role of two mechanisms, emotion-driven difficulties

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Broken Hearts and Battered Lives: Adverse and Abusive Life Histories and Externalized Responses to Anger as Pathways to Illicit Drug Use Among Incarcerated Women [2018]

Most incarcerated women suffer from adverse and abusive life histories, including adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), such as sexual, physical, emotional abuse, and neglect, and intimate partner violence (IPV). In addition, many have difficulties regulating their anger expression and most participate in illicit drug use. Although many have offered explanations for

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Can a Connection to Culture Reduce Mental Illness Symptoms and Risk for Future Violence? [2018]

Recent policy initiatives and service provider strategic frameworks from the state of Victoria have highlighted intentions to invest in culturally safe practices for justice‐involved Indigenous individuals. However, the culturally themed frameworks and protocols presented by health and justice organisations appear to be largely underpinned by theoretical and/or anecdotal evidence. This

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Characteristics and Context of Women Probationers and Parolees Who Engage in Violence [2017]

For a sample of 396 women on probation and parole, this article presents the results of qualitative analysis that shows the nature of violence for a subgroup of 75 women who were convicted of a violent act. For the full sample of 396, the article also presents results of quantitative

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Childhood Victimization, Recent Injustice, Anger, and Forgiveness in a Sample of Imprisoned Male Offenders [2018]

The links between childhood victimization, subsequent emotional dysregulation, and insufficient coping skills have been repeatedly documented in the scientific literature. However, there is a gap in the literature regarding the role of forgiveness as a coping strategy and relationships between offense-specific hurt, chronic anger, and early victimization. The goals of

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Clinical, Social, and Neuropsychological Dimensions of the Intersection of Addiction and Criminality [2018]

To examine the social cognitive processes underlying the relationship of addiction and criminality, we administered the Addiction Severity Index-CF (ASI-CF) and the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to 35 participants (11 women) who had been released recently from jail or prison. ASI-CF revealed highest lifetime drug use for alcohol, followed by

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Comparing the criminal careers and childhood risk factors of persistent, chronic, and persistent–chronic offenders – 2018

There have been few efforts to conceptually and empirically distinguish persistent and chronic offenders, despite the prominence of these concepts in the criminological literature. Research has not yet examined if different childhood risk factors are associated with offenders who have the longest criminal careers (persistent offenders), commit the most offences

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Completion and Recidivism Rates of High-Risk Youth on Probation: Do Home Visits Make a Difference? – 2018

Probation supervision with and without home visits is an underresearched area for adjudicated higher risk youth. This study compared 287 juvenile probationers receiving police/probation home visits with similar youth (n = 437) who were supervised on regular probation without home visits. Youth performance was measured during supervision and up to

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Considering the Mediating Effects of Drug and Alcohol Use, Mental Health, and Their Co-Occurrence on the Adverse Childhood Experiences–Recidivism Relationship [2018]

Prior research has demonstrated a relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and recidivism among justice-involved youth. It has also been found that drug and alcohol use, mental health, and their co-occurrence increase recidivism. As there is evidence that ACEs increase the likelihood of both drug and alcohol use and mental

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